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Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows : prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome

(2017) JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 100(1). p.588-597
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Abstract
The aims of our field study in dairy cows were (1) to consolidate cytotape (CT) as a valid technique to diagnose cytological endometritis (CYTO) during artificial insemination (AI); (2) to establish a cutoff point concerning the polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) proportion to diagnose CYTO at AI; (3) to assess the prevalence of CYTO at AI; and (4) to evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of that AI. The investigation was performed using 1,625 AI-CT samples harvested from 873 Holstein-Friesian cows from 18 dairy farms in the Flemish region of Belgium. The CT device consisted of adapting a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape on the top of a conventional AI catheter covered with a double guard sheet, allowing an endometrial cytology sample to be taken when performing an AI. A receiving operator characteristic curve was built to assess the threshold level above which the PMN proportion significantly affected the AI success. Multilevel generalized mixed-effect models were built to identify factors affecting the pregnancy outcome of the AI under investigation. Only 7 samples (0.4%) harvested in 5 cows were discarded because of low-quality parameters. The cutoff point for CYTO at AI was set at >= 1% PMN (sensitivity = 33.8%, specificity = 88.6%). Prevalence of CYTO at AI was 27.8%. The conception rate for CYTO-positive samples was 32.7%, whereas it was 47% for CYTO-negative samples. A CYTO-negative AI had 1.8 [odds ratio (OR)] more chances to become pregnant than a CYTO-positive one. Other factors identified as detrimental for the pregnancy outcome were body condition score <= 1.5 (OR = 0.6), relative 305-d milk yield (OR = 0.9), dystocia (OR = 0.3), parity >= 2 (OR = 0.7), and warm months of the year. In conclusion, CT is a consolidated technique to diagnose CYTO at AI, PMN 1% is the threshold level to diagnose CYTO at AI, around one-quarter of inseminated uteri suffer from CYTO, and affected uteri having a significantly lower chance to become pregnant from that insemination.
Keywords
dairy cow, artificial insemination, subclinical endometritis, cytotape, POSTPARTUM UTERINE DISEASE, BODY CONDITION SCORE, BOVINE SUBCLINICAL ENDOMETRITIS, REPRODUCTIVE-PERFORMANCE, HOLSTEIN COWS, MILK-PRODUCTION, NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION, VAGINAL DISCHARGE, CONCEPTION RATES, ESTROUS-CYCLE

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MLA
Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo Américo et al. “Cytological Endometritis at Artificial Insemination in Dairy Cows : Prevalence and Effect on Pregnancy Outcome.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE 100.1 (2017): 588–597. Print.
APA
Bogado Pascottini, O. A., Hostens, M., Sys, P., Vercauteren, P., & Opsomer, G. (2017). Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows : prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, 100(1), 588–597.
Chicago author-date
Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo Américo, Miel Hostens, Paul Sys, Peter Vercauteren, and Geert Opsomer. 2017. “Cytological Endometritis at Artificial Insemination in Dairy Cows : Prevalence and Effect on Pregnancy Outcome.” Journal of Dairy Science 100 (1): 588–597.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo Américo, Miel Hostens, Paul Sys, Peter Vercauteren, and Geert Opsomer. 2017. “Cytological Endometritis at Artificial Insemination in Dairy Cows : Prevalence and Effect on Pregnancy Outcome.” Journal of Dairy Science 100 (1): 588–597.
Vancouver
1.
Bogado Pascottini OA, Hostens M, Sys P, Vercauteren P, Opsomer G. Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows : prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 2017;100(1):588–97.
IEEE
[1]
O. A. Bogado Pascottini, M. Hostens, P. Sys, P. Vercauteren, and G. Opsomer, “Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows : prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome,” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 588–597, 2017.
@article{8500859,
  abstract     = {The aims of our field study in dairy cows were (1) to consolidate cytotape (CT) as a valid technique to diagnose cytological endometritis (CYTO) during artificial insemination (AI); (2) to establish a cutoff point concerning the polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) proportion to diagnose CYTO at AI; (3) to assess the prevalence of CYTO at AI; and (4) to evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of that AI. The investigation was performed using 1,625 AI-CT samples harvested from 873 Holstein-Friesian cows from 18 dairy farms in the Flemish region of Belgium. The CT device consisted of adapting a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape on the top of a conventional AI catheter covered with a double guard sheet, allowing an endometrial cytology sample to be taken when performing an AI. A receiving operator characteristic curve was built to assess the threshold level above which the PMN proportion significantly affected the AI success. Multilevel generalized mixed-effect models were built to identify factors affecting the pregnancy outcome of the AI under investigation. Only 7 samples (0.4%) harvested in 5 cows were discarded because of low-quality parameters. The cutoff point for CYTO at AI was set at >= 1% PMN (sensitivity = 33.8%, specificity = 88.6%). Prevalence of CYTO at AI was 27.8%. The conception rate for CYTO-positive samples was 32.7%, whereas it was 47% for CYTO-negative samples. A CYTO-negative AI had 1.8 [odds ratio (OR)] more chances to become pregnant than a CYTO-positive one. Other factors identified as detrimental for the pregnancy outcome were body condition score <= 1.5 (OR = 0.6), relative 305-d milk yield (OR = 0.9), dystocia (OR = 0.3), parity >= 2 (OR = 0.7), and warm months of the year. In conclusion, CT is a consolidated technique to diagnose CYTO at AI, PMN 1% is the threshold level to diagnose CYTO at AI, around one-quarter of inseminated uteri suffer from CYTO, and affected uteri having a significantly lower chance to become pregnant from that insemination.},
  author       = {Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo Américo and Hostens, Miel and Sys, Paul and Vercauteren, Peter and Opsomer, Geert},
  issn         = {0022-0302},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE},
  keywords     = {dairy cow,artificial insemination,subclinical endometritis,cytotape,POSTPARTUM UTERINE DISEASE,BODY CONDITION SCORE,BOVINE SUBCLINICAL ENDOMETRITIS,REPRODUCTIVE-PERFORMANCE,HOLSTEIN COWS,MILK-PRODUCTION,NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION,VAGINAL DISCHARGE,CONCEPTION RATES,ESTROUS-CYCLE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {588--597},
  title        = {Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows : prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11529},
  volume       = {100},
  year         = {2017},
}

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