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Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows : prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome

(2017) JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 100(1). p.588-597
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Abstract
The aims of our field study in dairy cows were (1) to consolidate cytotape (CT) as a valid technique to diagnose cytological endometritis (CYTO) during artificial insemination (AI); (2) to establish a cutoff point concerning the polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) proportion to diagnose CYTO at AI; (3) to assess the prevalence of CYTO at AI; and (4) to evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of that AI. The investigation was performed using 1,625 AI-CT samples harvested from 873 Holstein-Friesian cows from 18 dairy farms in the Flemish region of Belgium. The CT device consisted of adapting a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape on the top of a conventional AI catheter covered with a double guard sheet, allowing an endometrial cytology sample to be taken when performing an AI. A receiving operator characteristic curve was built to assess the threshold level above which the PMN proportion significantly affected the AI success. Multilevel generalized mixed-effect models were built to identify factors affecting the pregnancy outcome of the AI under investigation. Only 7 samples (0.4%) harvested in 5 cows were discarded because of low-quality parameters. The cutoff point for CYTO at AI was set at >= 1% PMN (sensitivity = 33.8%, specificity = 88.6%). Prevalence of CYTO at AI was 27.8%. The conception rate for CYTO-positive samples was 32.7%, whereas it was 47% for CYTO-negative samples. A CYTO-negative AI had 1.8 [odds ratio (OR)] more chances to become pregnant than a CYTO-positive one. Other factors identified as detrimental for the pregnancy outcome were body condition score <= 1.5 (OR = 0.6), relative 305-d milk yield (OR = 0.9), dystocia (OR = 0.3), parity >= 2 (OR = 0.7), and warm months of the year. In conclusion, CT is a consolidated technique to diagnose CYTO at AI, PMN 1% is the threshold level to diagnose CYTO at AI, around one-quarter of inseminated uteri suffer from CYTO, and affected uteri having a significantly lower chance to become pregnant from that insemination.
Keywords
dairy cow, artificial insemination, subclinical endometritis, cytotape, POSTPARTUM UTERINE DISEASE, BODY CONDITION SCORE, BOVINE SUBCLINICAL ENDOMETRITIS, REPRODUCTIVE-PERFORMANCE, HOLSTEIN COWS, MILK-PRODUCTION, NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION, VAGINAL DISCHARGE, CONCEPTION RATES, ESTROUS-CYCLE

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Chicago
Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo Américo, Miel Hostens, Paul Sys, Peter Vercauteren, and Geert Opsomer. 2017. “Cytological Endometritis at Artificial Insemination in Dairy Cows : Prevalence and Effect on Pregnancy Outcome.” Journal of Dairy Science 100 (1): 588–597.
APA
Bogado Pascottini, O. A., Hostens, M., Sys, P., Vercauteren, P., & Opsomer, G. (2017). Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows : prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, 100(1), 588–597.
Vancouver
1.
Bogado Pascottini OA, Hostens M, Sys P, Vercauteren P, Opsomer G. Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows : prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 2017;100(1):588–97.
MLA
Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo Américo, Miel Hostens, Paul Sys, et al. “Cytological Endometritis at Artificial Insemination in Dairy Cows : Prevalence and Effect on Pregnancy Outcome.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE 100.1 (2017): 588–597. Print.
@article{8500859,
  abstract     = {The aims of our field study in dairy cows were (1) to consolidate cytotape (CT) as a valid technique to diagnose cytological endometritis (CYTO) during artificial insemination (AI); (2) to establish a cutoff point concerning the polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) proportion to diagnose CYTO at AI; (3) to assess the prevalence of CYTO at AI; and (4) to evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of that AI. The investigation was performed using 1,625 AI-CT samples harvested from 873 Holstein-Friesian cows from 18 dairy farms in the Flemish region of Belgium. The CT device consisted of adapting a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape on the top of a conventional AI catheter covered with a double guard sheet, allowing an endometrial cytology sample to be taken when performing an AI. A receiving operator characteristic curve was built to assess the threshold level above which the PMN proportion significantly affected the AI success. Multilevel generalized mixed-effect models were built to identify factors affecting the pregnancy outcome of the AI under investigation. Only 7 samples (0.4\%) harvested in 5 cows were discarded because of low-quality parameters. The cutoff point for CYTO at AI was set at {\textrangle}= 1\% PMN (sensitivity = 33.8\%, specificity = 88.6\%). Prevalence of CYTO at AI was 27.8\%. The conception rate for CYTO-positive samples was 32.7\%, whereas it was 47\% for CYTO-negative samples. A CYTO-negative AI had 1.8 [odds ratio (OR)] more chances to become pregnant than a CYTO-positive one. Other factors identified as detrimental for the pregnancy outcome were body condition score {\textlangle}= 1.5 (OR = 0.6), relative 305-d milk yield (OR = 0.9), dystocia (OR = 0.3), parity {\textrangle}= 2 (OR = 0.7), and warm months of the year. In conclusion, CT is a consolidated technique to diagnose CYTO at AI, PMN 1\% is the threshold level to diagnose CYTO at AI, around one-quarter of inseminated uteri suffer from CYTO, and affected uteri having a significantly lower chance to become pregnant from that insemination.},
  author       = {Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo Am{\'e}rico and Hostens, Miel and Sys, Paul and Vercauteren, Peter and Opsomer, Geert},
  issn         = {0022-0302},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE},
  keyword      = {dairy cow,artificial insemination,subclinical endometritis,cytotape,POSTPARTUM UTERINE DISEASE,BODY CONDITION SCORE,BOVINE SUBCLINICAL ENDOMETRITIS,REPRODUCTIVE-PERFORMANCE,HOLSTEIN COWS,MILK-PRODUCTION,NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION,VAGINAL DISCHARGE,CONCEPTION RATES,ESTROUS-CYCLE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {588--597},
  title        = {Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows : prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11529},
  volume       = {100},
  year         = {2017},
}

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