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Biodiversity increases functional and compositional resistance, but decreases resilience in phytoplankton communities

Jan Baert (UGent) , Frederik De Laender (UGent) , Koen Sabbe (UGent) and Colin Janssen (UGent)
(2016) ECOLOGY. 97(12). p.3433-3440
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Abstract
There is now ample evidence that biodiversity stabilizes aggregated ecosystem functions, such as primary production, in changing environments. In primary producer systems, this stabilizing effect is found to be driven by higher functional resistance (i.e., reduced changes in functions by environmental changes) rather than through higher functional resilience (i.e., rapid recovery following environmental changes) in more diverse systems. The stability of aggregated ecosystem functions directly depends on changes in species composition and by consequence their functional contributions to ecosystem functions. Still, it remains only theoretically explored how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem functions by affecting compositional stability. Here, we demonstrate how biodiversity effects on compositional stability drive biodiversity effects on functional stability in diatom communities. In a microcosm experiment, we exposed 39 communities of five different levels of species richness (1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 species) to three concentrations of a chemical stressor (0, 25, and 250g/L atrazine) for four weeks, after which all communities were transferred to atrazine-free medium for three more weeks. Biodiversity simultaneously increased, increasing functional and compositional resistance, but decreased functional and compositional resilience. These results confirm the theoretically proposed link between biodiversity effects on functional and compositional stability in primary producer systems, and provide a mechanistic underpinning for observed biodiversity-stability relationships. Finally, we discuss how higher compositional stability can be expected to become increasingly important in stabilizing ecosystem functions under field conditions when multiple environmental stressors fluctuate simultaneously.
Keywords
diatoms, ecosystem functions, evenness, herbicide, primary production, stability, ALTERNATIVE STABLE STATES, SPECIES-DIVERSITY, STATISTICAL INEVITABILITY, ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES, ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTIVITY, INSURANCE HYPOTHESIS, CURRENT KNOWLEDGE, FOOD WEBS, STABILITY, VARIABILITY

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MLA
Baert, Jan et al. “Biodiversity Increases Functional and Compositional Resistance, but Decreases Resilience in Phytoplankton Communities.” ECOLOGY 97.12 (2016): 3433–3440. Print.
APA
Baert, Jan, De Laender, F., Sabbe, K., & Janssen, C. (2016). Biodiversity increases functional and compositional resistance, but decreases resilience in phytoplankton communities. ECOLOGY, 97(12), 3433–3440.
Chicago author-date
Baert, Jan, Frederik De Laender, Koen Sabbe, and Colin Janssen. 2016. “Biodiversity Increases Functional and Compositional Resistance, but Decreases Resilience in Phytoplankton Communities.” Ecology 97 (12): 3433–3440.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Baert, Jan, Frederik De Laender, Koen Sabbe, and Colin Janssen. 2016. “Biodiversity Increases Functional and Compositional Resistance, but Decreases Resilience in Phytoplankton Communities.” Ecology 97 (12): 3433–3440.
Vancouver
1.
Baert J, De Laender F, Sabbe K, Janssen C. Biodiversity increases functional and compositional resistance, but decreases resilience in phytoplankton communities. ECOLOGY. 2016;97(12):3433–40.
IEEE
[1]
J. Baert, F. De Laender, K. Sabbe, and C. Janssen, “Biodiversity increases functional and compositional resistance, but decreases resilience in phytoplankton communities,” ECOLOGY, vol. 97, no. 12, pp. 3433–3440, 2016.
@article{8500681,
  abstract     = {{There is now ample evidence that biodiversity stabilizes aggregated ecosystem functions, such as primary production, in changing environments. In primary producer systems, this stabilizing effect is found to be driven by higher functional resistance (i.e., reduced changes in functions by environmental changes) rather than through higher functional resilience (i.e., rapid recovery following environmental changes) in more diverse systems. The stability of aggregated ecosystem functions directly depends on changes in species composition and by consequence their functional contributions to ecosystem functions. Still, it remains only theoretically explored how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem functions by affecting compositional stability. Here, we demonstrate how biodiversity effects on compositional stability drive biodiversity effects on functional stability in diatom communities. In a microcosm experiment, we exposed 39 communities of five different levels of species richness (1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 species) to three concentrations of a chemical stressor (0, 25, and 250g/L atrazine) for four weeks, after which all communities were transferred to atrazine-free medium for three more weeks. Biodiversity simultaneously increased, increasing functional and compositional resistance, but decreased functional and compositional resilience. These results confirm the theoretically proposed link between biodiversity effects on functional and compositional stability in primary producer systems, and provide a mechanistic underpinning for observed biodiversity-stability relationships. Finally, we discuss how higher compositional stability can be expected to become increasingly important in stabilizing ecosystem functions under field conditions when multiple environmental stressors fluctuate simultaneously.}},
  author       = {{Baert, Jan and De Laender, Frederik and Sabbe, Koen and Janssen, Colin}},
  issn         = {{0012-9658}},
  journal      = {{ECOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{diatoms,ecosystem functions,evenness,herbicide,primary production,stability,ALTERNATIVE STABLE STATES,SPECIES-DIVERSITY,STATISTICAL INEVITABILITY,ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES,ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTIVITY,INSURANCE HYPOTHESIS,CURRENT KNOWLEDGE,FOOD WEBS,STABILITY,VARIABILITY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{3433--3440}},
  title        = {{Biodiversity increases functional and compositional resistance, but decreases resilience in phytoplankton communities}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1601}},
  volume       = {{97}},
  year         = {{2016}},
}

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