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Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood : an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts

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Abstract
Height variation is known to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, but a systematic description of how their influences differ by sex, age and global regions is lacking. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts from 20 countries, including 180,520 paired measurements at ages 1-19 years. The proportion of height variation explained by shared environmental factors was greatest in early childhood, but these effects remained present until early adulthood. Accordingly, the relative genetic contribution increased with age and was greatest in adolescence (up to 0.83 in boys and 0.76 in girls). Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North-America and Australia, and East-Asia), genetic variance was greatest in North-America and Australia and lowest in East-Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation was roughly similar across these regions. Our findings provide further insights into height variation during childhood and adolescence in populations representing different ethnicities and exposed to different environments.
Keywords
BODY-MASS INDEX, GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION, CODATWINS PROJECT, GROWTH, HERITABILITY, CHILDHOOD, TRAITS, WEIGHT, AGE, POPULATIONS

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MLA
Jelenkovic, Aline et al. “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Height from Infancy to Early Adulthood : an Individual-based Pooled Analysis of 45 Twin Cohorts.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 6 (2016): n. pag. Print.
APA
Jelenkovic, A., Sund, R., Hur, Y.-M., Yokoyama, Y., Hjelmborg, J. vB, Möller, S., Honda, C., et al. (2016). Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood : an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 6.
Chicago author-date
Jelenkovic, Aline, Reijo Sund, Yoon-Mi Hur, Yoshie Yokoyama, Jacob vb Hjelmborg, Sören Möller, Chika Honda, et al. 2016. “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Height from Infancy to Early Adulthood : an Individual-based Pooled Analysis of 45 Twin Cohorts.” Scientific Reports 6.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Jelenkovic, Aline, Reijo Sund, Yoon-Mi Hur, Yoshie Yokoyama, Jacob vb Hjelmborg, Sören Möller, Chika Honda, Patrik KE Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Syuichi Ooki, Sari Aaltonen, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Cristina D’Ippolito, Duarte L Freitas, José Antonio Maia, Fuling Ji, Feng Ning, Zengchang Pang, Esther Rebato, Andreas Busjahn, Christian Kandler, Kimberly J Saudino, Kerry L Jang, Wendy Cozen, Amie E Hwang, Thomas M Mack, Wenjing Gao, Canqing Yu, Liming Li, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Catherine Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth JF Loos, Kauko Heikkilä, Jane Wardle, Clare H Llewellyn, Abigail Fisher, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley, Alice M Gregory, Mingguang He, Xiaohu Ding, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Morten Sodemann, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Ariel Knafo-Noam, David Mankuta, Lior Abramson, S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Judy L Silberg, Lindon J Eaves, Hermine H Maes, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Margaret Gatz, David A Butler, Meike Bartels, Toos CEM van Beijsterveldt, Jeffrey M Craig, Richard Saffery, Lise Dubois, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Ginette Dionne, Frank Vitaro, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Gary E Swan, Ruth Krasnow, Per Tynelius, Paul Lichtenstein, Claire MA Haworth, Robert Plomin, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Timothy Spector, Massimo Mangino, Genevieve Lachance, Laura A Baker, Catherine Tuvblad, Glen E Duncan, Dedra Buchwald, Gonneke Willemsen, Axel Skytthe, Kirsten O Kyvik, Kaare Christensen, Sevgi Y Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Finn Rasmussen, Jack H Goldberg, Thorkild IA Sørensen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jaakko Kaprio, and Karri Silventoinen. 2016. “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Height from Infancy to Early Adulthood : an Individual-based Pooled Analysis of 45 Twin Cohorts.” Scientific Reports 6.
Vancouver
1.
Jelenkovic A, Sund R, Hur Y-M, Yokoyama Y, Hjelmborg J vB, Möller S, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood : an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2016;6.
IEEE
[1]
A. Jelenkovic et al., “Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood : an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts,” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 6, 2016.
@article{8500629,
  abstract     = {Height variation is known to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, but a systematic description of how their influences differ by sex, age and global regions is lacking. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts from 20 countries, including 180,520 paired measurements at ages 1-19 years. The proportion of height variation explained by shared environmental factors was greatest in early childhood, but these effects remained present until early adulthood. Accordingly, the relative genetic contribution increased with age and was greatest in adolescence (up to 0.83 in boys and 0.76 in girls). Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North-America and Australia, and East-Asia), genetic variance was greatest in North-America and Australia and lowest in East-Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation was roughly similar across these regions. Our findings provide further insights into height variation during childhood and adolescence in populations representing different ethnicities and exposed to different environments.},
  articleno    = {28496},
  author       = {Jelenkovic, Aline and Sund, Reijo and Hur, Yoon-Mi and Yokoyama, Yoshie and Hjelmborg, Jacob vB and Möller, Sören and Honda, Chika and Magnusson, Patrik KE and Pedersen, Nancy L and Ooki, Syuichi and Aaltonen, Sari and Stazi, Maria A and Fagnani, Corrado and D'Ippolito, Cristina and Freitas, Duarte L and Maia, José Antonio and Ji, Fuling and Ning, Feng and Pang, Zengchang and Rebato, Esther and Busjahn, Andreas and Kandler, Christian and Saudino, Kimberly J and Jang, Kerry L and Cozen, Wendy and Hwang, Amie E and Mack, Thomas M and Gao, Wenjing and Yu, Canqing and Li, Liming and Corley, Robin P and Huibregtse, Brooke M and Derom, Catherine and Vlietinck, Robert F and Loos, Ruth JF and Heikkilä, Kauko and Wardle, Jane and Llewellyn, Clare H and Fisher, Abigail and McAdams, Tom A and Eley, Thalia C and Gregory, Alice M and He, Mingguang and Ding, Xiaohu and Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten and Beck-Nielsen, Henning and Sodemann, Morten and Tarnoki, Adam D and Tarnoki, David L and Knafo-Noam, Ariel and Mankuta, David and Abramson, Lior and Burt, S Alexandra and Klump, Kelly L and Silberg, Judy L and Eaves, Lindon J and Maes, Hermine H and Krueger, Robert F and McGue, Matt and Pahlen, Shandell and Gatz, Margaret and Butler, David A and Bartels, Meike and van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM and Craig, Jeffrey M and Saffery, Richard and Dubois, Lise and Boivin, Michel and Brendgen, Mara and Dionne, Ginette and Vitaro, Frank and Martin, Nicholas G and Medland, Sarah E and Montgomery, Grant W and Swan, Gary E and Krasnow, Ruth and Tynelius, Per and Lichtenstein, Paul and Haworth, Claire MA and Plomin, Robert and Bayasgalan, Gombojav and Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol and Harden, K Paige and Tucker-Drob, Elliot M and Spector, Timothy and Mangino, Massimo and Lachance, Genevieve and Baker, Laura A and Tuvblad, Catherine and Duncan, Glen E and Buchwald, Dedra and Willemsen, Gonneke and Skytthe, Axel and Kyvik, Kirsten O and Christensen, Kaare and Öncel, Sevgi Y and Aliev, Fazil and Rasmussen, Finn and Goldberg, Jack H and Sørensen, Thorkild IA and Boomsma, Dorret I and Kaprio, Jaakko and Silventoinen, Karri},
  issn         = {2045-2322},
  journal      = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
  keywords     = {BODY-MASS INDEX,GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION,CODATWINS PROJECT,GROWTH,HERITABILITY,CHILDHOOD,TRAITS,WEIGHT,AGE,POPULATIONS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {13},
  title        = {Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood : an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep28496},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2016},
}

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