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Effect of helium pre- or postconditioning on signal transduction kinases in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

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Abstract
Background: The noble gas helium induces pre- and postconditioning in animals and humans. Volatile anesthetics induce cardioprotection in humans undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We hypothesized that helium induces pre-and postconditioning in CABG-patients, affecting signaling molecules protein kinase C-epsilon (PKC-epsilon), p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP-27) within cardiac tissue, and reducing postoperative troponin levels. Methods: After ethical approval and informed consent, 125 elective patients undergoing CABG surgery were randomised into this prospective, placebo controlled, investigator blinded, parallel arm single-centre study. Helium preconditioning (3 x 5 min of 70 % helium and 30 % oxygen) was applied before aortic cross clamping; postconditioning (15 min of helium) was applied before release of the aortic cross clamp. Signaling molecules were measured in right atrial appendix specimens. Troponin-T was measured at 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively. Results: Baseline characteristics of all groups were similar. Helium preconditioning did not significantly alter the primary outcome (molecular levels of kinases PKC-e and HSP-27, ratio of activated p38 MAPK or ERK 1/2). Postoperative troponin T was 11 arbitrary units [5, 31; area-under-the-curve (interquartile range)] for controls, and no statistically significant changes were observed after helium preconditioning [He-pre: 11 (6, 18)], helium postconditioning [He-post: 11 (8, 15)], helium pre-and postconditioning [He-PP: 14 (6, 20)] and after sevoflurane preconditioning [APC: 12 (8, 24), p = 0.13]. No adverse effects related to study treatment were observed in this study. Conclusions: No effect was observed of helium preconditioning, postconditioning or the combination thereof on activation of p38 MAPK, ERK 1/2 or levels of HSP27 and PKC-e in the human heart. Helium pre-and postconditioning did not affect postoperative troponin release in patients undergoing CABG surgery.
Keywords
Noble gases, Helium, Preconditioning, Postconditioning, Translation, CABG surgery, P38 MAPK, ERK1/2, HSP-27, PKC-epsilon, HEART IN-VIVO, CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS, CARDIAC-SURGERY, RAT-HEART, INDUCED CARDIOPROTECTION, VOLATILE ANESTHETICS, HUMAN MYOCARDIUM, NOBLE-GASES, XENON, MECHANISM

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MLA
Smit, Kirsten F., et al. “Effect of Helium Pre- or Postconditioning on Signal Transduction Kinases in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.” JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, vol. 14, 2016, doi:10.1186/s12967-016-1045-z.
APA
Smit, K. F., Brevoord, D., De Hert, S., de Mol, B. A., Kerindongo, R. P., van Dieren, S., … Preckel, B. (2016). Effect of helium pre- or postconditioning on signal transduction kinases in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-016-1045-z
Chicago author-date
Smit, Kirsten F, Daniel Brevoord, Stefan De Hert, Bas A de Mol, Raphaela P Kerindongo, Susan van Dieren, Wolfgang S Schlack, Markus W Hollmann, Nina C Weber, and Benedikt Preckel. 2016. “Effect of Helium Pre- or Postconditioning on Signal Transduction Kinases in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.” JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-016-1045-z.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Smit, Kirsten F, Daniel Brevoord, Stefan De Hert, Bas A de Mol, Raphaela P Kerindongo, Susan van Dieren, Wolfgang S Schlack, Markus W Hollmann, Nina C Weber, and Benedikt Preckel. 2016. “Effect of Helium Pre- or Postconditioning on Signal Transduction Kinases in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.” JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 14. doi:10.1186/s12967-016-1045-z.
Vancouver
1.
Smit KF, Brevoord D, De Hert S, de Mol BA, Kerindongo RP, van Dieren S, et al. Effect of helium pre- or postconditioning on signal transduction kinases in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE. 2016;14.
IEEE
[1]
K. F. Smit et al., “Effect of helium pre- or postconditioning on signal transduction kinases in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery,” JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, vol. 14, 2016.
@article{8500035,
  abstract     = {{Background: The noble gas helium induces pre- and postconditioning in animals and humans. Volatile anesthetics induce cardioprotection in humans undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We hypothesized that helium induces pre-and postconditioning in CABG-patients, affecting signaling molecules protein kinase C-epsilon (PKC-epsilon), p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP-27) within cardiac tissue, and reducing postoperative troponin levels. 
Methods: After ethical approval and informed consent, 125 elective patients undergoing CABG surgery were randomised into this prospective, placebo controlled, investigator blinded, parallel arm single-centre study. Helium preconditioning (3 x 5 min of 70 % helium and 30 % oxygen) was applied before aortic cross clamping; postconditioning (15 min of helium) was applied before release of the aortic cross clamp. Signaling molecules were measured in right atrial appendix specimens. Troponin-T was measured at 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively. 
Results: Baseline characteristics of all groups were similar. Helium preconditioning did not significantly alter the primary outcome (molecular levels of kinases PKC-e and HSP-27, ratio of activated p38 MAPK or ERK 1/2). Postoperative troponin T was 11 arbitrary units [5, 31; area-under-the-curve (interquartile range)] for controls, and no statistically significant changes were observed after helium preconditioning [He-pre: 11 (6, 18)], helium postconditioning [He-post: 11 (8, 15)], helium pre-and postconditioning [He-PP: 14 (6, 20)] and after sevoflurane preconditioning [APC: 12 (8, 24), p = 0.13]. No adverse effects related to study treatment were observed in this study. 
Conclusions: No effect was observed of helium preconditioning, postconditioning or the combination thereof on activation of p38 MAPK, ERK 1/2 or levels of HSP27 and PKC-e in the human heart. Helium pre-and postconditioning did not affect postoperative troponin release in patients undergoing CABG surgery.}},
  articleno    = {{294}},
  author       = {{Smit, Kirsten F and Brevoord, Daniel and De Hert, Stefan and de Mol, Bas A and Kerindongo, Raphaela P and van Dieren, Susan and Schlack, Wolfgang S and Hollmann, Markus W and Weber, Nina C and Preckel, Benedikt}},
  issn         = {{1479-5876}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE}},
  keywords     = {{Noble gases,Helium,Preconditioning,Postconditioning,Translation,CABG surgery,P38 MAPK,ERK1/2,HSP-27,PKC-epsilon,HEART IN-VIVO,CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS,CARDIAC-SURGERY,RAT-HEART,INDUCED CARDIOPROTECTION,VOLATILE ANESTHETICS,HUMAN MYOCARDIUM,NOBLE-GASES,XENON,MECHANISM}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{13}},
  title        = {{Effect of helium pre- or postconditioning on signal transduction kinases in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-016-1045-z}},
  volume       = {{14}},
  year         = {{2016}},
}

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