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PIN phosphorylation is sufficient to mediate PIN polarity and direct auxin transport

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Abstract
The plant hormone auxin plays a crucial role in regulating plant development and plant architecture. The directional auxin distribution within tissues depends on PIN transporters that are polarly localized on the plasma membrane. The PIN polarity and the resulting auxin flow directionality are mediated by the antagonistic actions of PINOID kinase and protein phosphatase 2A. However, the contribution of the PIN phosphorylation to the polar PIN sorting is still unclear. Here, we identified an evolutionarily conserved phosphorylation site within the central hydrophilic loop of PIN proteins that is important for the apical and basal polar PIN localizations. Inactivation of the phosphorylation site in PIN1(Ala) resulted in a predominantly basal targeting and increased the auxin flow to the root tip. In contrast, the outcome of the phosphomimic PIN1(Asp) manipulation was a constitutive, PINOID-independent apical targeting of PIN1 and an increased auxin flow in the opposite direction. Furthermore, the PIN1(Asp) functionally replaced PIN2 in its endogenous expression domain, revealing that the phosphorylation-dependent polarity regulation contributes to functional diversification within the PIN family. Our data suggest that PINOID-independent PIN phosphorylation at one single site is adequate to change the PIN polarity and, consequently, to redirect auxin fluxes between cells and provide the conceptual possibility and means to manipulate auxin-dependent plant development and architecture.
Keywords
AGC KINASES, ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA, PROTEIN-KINASE, PLANT DEVELOPMENT, ROOT GRAVITROPISM, GRADIENTS, SPECIFICITY, auxin distribution, plant architecture, cell polarity, EFFLUX, LOCALIZATION, BIOSYNTHESIS

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MLA
Zhang, Jing et al. “PIN Phosphorylation Is Sufficient to Mediate PIN Polarity and Direct Auxin Transport.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 107.2 (2010): 918–922. Print.
APA
Zhang, Jing, Nodzyński, T., Pencik, A., Rolcik, J., & Friml, J. (2010). PIN phosphorylation is sufficient to mediate PIN polarity and direct auxin transport. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 107(2), 918–922.
Chicago author-date
Zhang, Jing, Tomasz Nodzyński, Ales Pencik, Jakub Rolcik, and Jiri Friml. 2010. “PIN Phosphorylation Is Sufficient to Mediate PIN Polarity and Direct Auxin Transport.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (2): 918–922.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Zhang, Jing, Tomasz Nodzyński, Ales Pencik, Jakub Rolcik, and Jiri Friml. 2010. “PIN Phosphorylation Is Sufficient to Mediate PIN Polarity and Direct Auxin Transport.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (2): 918–922.
Vancouver
1.
Zhang J, Nodzyński T, Pencik A, Rolcik J, Friml J. PIN phosphorylation is sufficient to mediate PIN polarity and direct auxin transport. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 2010;107(2):918–22.
IEEE
[1]
J. Zhang, T. Nodzyński, A. Pencik, J. Rolcik, and J. Friml, “PIN phosphorylation is sufficient to mediate PIN polarity and direct auxin transport,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 918–922, 2010.
@article{846552,
  abstract     = {The plant hormone auxin plays a crucial role in regulating plant development and plant architecture. The directional auxin distribution within tissues depends on PIN transporters that are polarly localized on the plasma membrane. The PIN polarity and the resulting auxin flow directionality are mediated by the antagonistic actions of PINOID kinase and protein phosphatase 2A. However, the contribution of the PIN phosphorylation to the polar PIN sorting is still unclear. Here, we identified an evolutionarily conserved phosphorylation site within the central hydrophilic loop of PIN proteins that is important for the apical and basal polar PIN localizations. Inactivation of the phosphorylation site in PIN1(Ala) resulted in a predominantly basal targeting and increased the auxin flow to the root tip. In contrast, the outcome of the phosphomimic PIN1(Asp) manipulation was a constitutive, PINOID-independent apical targeting of PIN1 and an increased auxin flow in the opposite direction. Furthermore, the PIN1(Asp) functionally replaced PIN2 in its endogenous expression domain, revealing that the phosphorylation-dependent polarity regulation contributes to functional diversification within the PIN family. Our data suggest that PINOID-independent PIN phosphorylation at one single site is adequate to change the PIN polarity and, consequently, to redirect auxin fluxes between cells and provide the conceptual possibility and means to manipulate auxin-dependent plant development and architecture.},
  author       = {Zhang, Jing and Nodzyński, Tomasz and Pencik, Ales and Rolcik, Jakub and Friml, Jiri},
  issn         = {0027-8424},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
  keywords     = {AGC KINASES,ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA,PROTEIN-KINASE,PLANT DEVELOPMENT,ROOT GRAVITROPISM,GRADIENTS,SPECIFICITY,auxin distribution,plant architecture,cell polarity,EFFLUX,LOCALIZATION,BIOSYNTHESIS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {918--922},
  title        = {PIN phosphorylation is sufficient to mediate PIN polarity and direct auxin transport},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0909460107},
  volume       = {107},
  year         = {2010},
}

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