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Efficient transmission of swine-adapted but not wholly avian influenza viruses among pigs and from pigs to ferrets

(2009) JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 200(12). p.1884-1892
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Abstract
Background. Pigs are considered to be intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) between birds and humans, but the transmissibility of AIVs among pigs and from pigs to other mammals remains largely unexplored. Methods. In an initial study, we confirmed the replication potential of various low-pathogenic AIVs in pigs and ferrets, which we used as a model for humans. We then examined the transmissibility of 6 selected low-pathogenic AIVs among pigs (by direct contact) and from pigs to ferrets (by air contact). Results. Although H1N1 and H3N2 swine influenza viruses spread readily from inoculated pigs to contact pigs and ferrets, evidence for AIV transmission was extremely rare. The fact that infected pigs shed lower amounts of AIVs than of swine influenza viruses may contribute to the reduced transmissibility of AIVs. Conclusions. Our data indicate that swine-adapted influenza viruses spread readily among pigs and from pigs to other susceptible mammalians and support the notion that AIVs undergo genetic adaptation to efficiently cross the species barrier. Our transmission models hold potential to study the factors that lead to the generation of pandemic influenza viruses.
Keywords
H9N2, REASSORTMENT, REPLICATION, GENETIC-CHARACTERIZATION, IDENTIFICATION, MAMMALS, CHINA, HUMANS, A VIRUSES, RECEPTOR SPECIFICITY

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Chicago
De Vleeschauwer, Annebel, Sjouke Van Poucke, Debby Braeckmans, Jan Van Doorsselaere, and Kristien Van Reeth. 2009. “Efficient Transmission of Swine-adapted but Not Wholly Avian Influenza Viruses Among Pigs and from Pigs to Ferrets.” Journal of Infectious Diseases 200 (12): 1884–1892.
APA
De Vleeschauwer, A., Van Poucke, S., Braeckmans, D., Van Doorsselaere, J., & Van Reeth, K. (2009). Efficient transmission of swine-adapted but not wholly avian influenza viruses among pigs and from pigs to ferrets. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 200(12), 1884–1892.
Vancouver
1.
De Vleeschauwer A, Van Poucke S, Braeckmans D, Van Doorsselaere J, Van Reeth K. Efficient transmission of swine-adapted but not wholly avian influenza viruses among pigs and from pigs to ferrets. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 2009;200(12):1884–92.
MLA
De Vleeschauwer, Annebel, Sjouke Van Poucke, Debby Braeckmans, et al. “Efficient Transmission of Swine-adapted but Not Wholly Avian Influenza Viruses Among Pigs and from Pigs to Ferrets.” JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 200.12 (2009): 1884–1892. Print.
@article{843835,
  abstract     = {Background. Pigs are considered to be intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) between birds and humans, but the transmissibility of AIVs among pigs and from pigs to other mammals remains largely unexplored.
Methods. In an initial study, we confirmed the replication potential of various low-pathogenic AIVs in pigs and ferrets, which we used as a model for humans. We then examined the transmissibility of 6 selected low-pathogenic AIVs among pigs (by direct contact) and from pigs to ferrets (by air contact).
Results. Although H1N1 and H3N2 swine influenza viruses spread readily from inoculated pigs to contact pigs and ferrets, evidence for AIV transmission was extremely rare. The fact that infected pigs shed lower amounts of AIVs than of swine influenza viruses may contribute to the reduced transmissibility of AIVs.
Conclusions. Our data indicate that swine-adapted influenza viruses spread readily among pigs and from pigs to other susceptible mammalians and support the notion that AIVs undergo genetic adaptation to efficiently cross the species barrier. Our transmission models hold potential to study the factors that lead to the generation of pandemic influenza viruses.},
  author       = {De Vleeschauwer, Annebel and Van Poucke, Sjouke and Braeckmans, Debby and Van Doorsselaere, Jan and Van Reeth, Kristien},
  issn         = {0022-1899},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES},
  keyword      = {H9N2,REASSORTMENT,REPLICATION,GENETIC-CHARACTERIZATION,IDENTIFICATION,MAMMALS,CHINA,HUMANS,A VIRUSES,RECEPTOR SPECIFICITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {1884--1892},
  title        = {Efficient transmission of swine-adapted but not wholly avian influenza viruses among pigs and from pigs to ferrets},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/648475},
  volume       = {200},
  year         = {2009},
}

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