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Gamma radiation alters the ultrastructure in tissue-engineered heart valve scaffolds

(2009) TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A. 15(11). p.3597-3604
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Xenogenic extracellular heart valve matrices have been suggested as scaffolds for tissue engineering. However, these matrices are immunogenic and stimulate an intense cell-mediated immune response and calcification. Mitigating the immunogenicity was attempted by different doses of gamma irradiation. METHODS: Mechanical properties of gamma-irradiated porcine matrices and control matrices (nonirradiated) were examined by tensile strength testing. Irradiated matrices (1, 10, 50, and 100 gray [Gy]) and control matrices were implanted subcutaneously in Wistar rats (n = 20). After 24 h, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks the explants were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Calcium (Ca) content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Antibody reaction against porcine tissue in the rat serum was determined. RESULTS: Tensile strength increased in irradiated matrices at the expense of elasticity. Ten gray-irradiated leaflets showed minimal lymphocytic inflammatory infiltration with preservation of ultrastructure. Ca levels after 2 weeks were as follows: control (0 Gy), 388 +/- 264 microg/mg; 1 Gy, 240 +/- 95 microg/mg; 10 Gy, 188 +/- 54 microg/mg; 50 Gy, 289 +/- 94 microg/mg; 100 Gy, 651 +/- 57 microg/mg. All implants still elicit an antibody immunoglobulin G reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to 10 Gy gamma irradiation reduces lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates and Ca levels in acellular porcine matrices with preservation of structural integrity. This could prolong the durability of these matrices.
Keywords
Extracellular Matrix, Cross-linker, Heart Valve, Immune Reponse, Modulation, Gamma-radiation

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Chicago
Somers, Pamela, Claude Cuvelier, Filip De Somer, Maria Cornelissen, Eric Cox, Marc Verloo, Koen Chiers, and Guido Van Nooten. 2009. “Gamma Radiation Alters the Ultrastructure in Tissue-engineered Heart Valve Scaffolds.” Tissue Engineering Part A 15 (11): 3597–3604.
APA
Somers, P., Cuvelier, C., De Somer, F., Cornelissen, M., Cox, E., Verloo, M., Chiers, K., et al. (2009). Gamma radiation alters the ultrastructure in tissue-engineered heart valve scaffolds. TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A, 15(11), 3597–3604.
Vancouver
1.
Somers P, Cuvelier C, De Somer F, Cornelissen M, Cox E, Verloo M, et al. Gamma radiation alters the ultrastructure in tissue-engineered heart valve scaffolds. TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A. 2009;15(11):3597–604.
MLA
Somers, Pamela, Claude Cuvelier, Filip De Somer, et al. “Gamma Radiation Alters the Ultrastructure in Tissue-engineered Heart Valve Scaffolds.” TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A 15.11 (2009): 3597–3604. Print.
@article{835622,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVES: Xenogenic extracellular heart valve matrices have been suggested as scaffolds for tissue engineering. However, these matrices are immunogenic and stimulate an intense cell-mediated immune response and calcification. Mitigating the immunogenicity was attempted by different doses of gamma irradiation. METHODS: Mechanical properties of gamma-irradiated porcine matrices and control matrices (nonirradiated) were examined by tensile strength testing. Irradiated matrices (1, 10, 50, and 100 gray [Gy]) and control matrices were implanted subcutaneously in Wistar rats (n = 20). After 24 h, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks the explants were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Calcium (Ca) content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Antibody reaction against porcine tissue in the rat serum was determined. RESULTS: Tensile strength increased in irradiated matrices at the expense of elasticity. Ten gray-irradiated leaflets showed minimal lymphocytic inflammatory infiltration with preservation of ultrastructure. Ca levels after 2 weeks were as follows: control (0 Gy), 388 +/- 264 microg/mg; 1 Gy, 240 +/- 95 microg/mg; 10 Gy, 188 +/- 54 microg/mg; 50 Gy, 289 +/- 94 microg/mg; 100 Gy, 651 +/- 57 microg/mg. All implants still elicit an antibody immunoglobulin G reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to 10 Gy gamma irradiation reduces lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates and Ca levels in acellular porcine matrices with preservation of structural integrity. This could prolong the durability of these matrices.},
  author       = {Somers, Pamela and Cuvelier, Claude and De Somer, Filip and Cornelissen, Maria and Cox, Eric and Verloo, Marc and Chiers, Koen and Van Nooten, Guido},
  issn         = {1937-3341},
  journal      = {TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A},
  keyword      = {Extracellular Matrix,Cross-linker,Heart Valve,Immune Reponse,Modulation,Gamma-radiation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {3597--3604},
  title        = {Gamma radiation alters the ultrastructure in tissue-engineered heart valve scaffolds},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea.2008.0690},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2009},
}

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