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Micromanagement in the gut : microenvironmental factors govern colon mucosal biofilm structure and functionality

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Abstract
The human gut microbiome provides us with functional features that we did not have to evolve ourselves and can be viewed as a structured microbial community that operates like a microbial organ within the human host. A minor but important part of this microbiome is the ability to colonise and thrive within the mucous layer that covers the colon epithelium. These mucosal microbes intimately interact with the intestinal tissue and seem to be important modulators of human health. Embedded in the host-secreted mucous matrix, they form a 'mucosal biofilm' with a distinct composition and functionality. In this review, we provide evidence that six specific (micro) environmental factors near the colon mucosa shape and determine mucosal biofilm formation and stability, that is, (1) mucous rigidity, (2) gradients of fluid shear, (3) radial oxygen gradients, (4) secretions of host defense molecules, (5) the presence of a rich but challenging nutrient platform and (6) the presence of niches at the colon epithelial surface. In addition, it appears that microbes actively participate in shaping their mucosal environment. Current insights into the interaction between mucosal microbes and their environment are rather limited, and many questions regarding the contribution of mucosal biofilm functionality and stability to human health remain to be answered. Yet, given the higher potency of mucosal microbes than their luminal counterparts to interact with the host, new insights can accelerate the development of novel disease-preventive or therapeutic strategies.

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
De Weirdt, Rosemarie, and Tom Van de Wiele. “Micromanagement in the Gut : Microenvironmental Factors Govern Colon Mucosal Biofilm Structure and Functionality.” NPJ BIOFILMS AND MICROBIOMES 1 (2015): n. pag. Print.
APA
De Weirdt, R., & Van de Wiele, T. (2015). Micromanagement in the gut : microenvironmental factors govern colon mucosal biofilm structure and functionality. NPJ BIOFILMS AND MICROBIOMES, 1.
Chicago author-date
De Weirdt, Rosemarie, and Tom Van de Wiele. 2015. “Micromanagement in the Gut : Microenvironmental Factors Govern Colon Mucosal Biofilm Structure and Functionality.” Npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 1.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Weirdt, Rosemarie, and Tom Van de Wiele. 2015. “Micromanagement in the Gut : Microenvironmental Factors Govern Colon Mucosal Biofilm Structure and Functionality.” Npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 1.
Vancouver
1.
De Weirdt R, Van de Wiele T. Micromanagement in the gut : microenvironmental factors govern colon mucosal biofilm structure and functionality. NPJ BIOFILMS AND MICROBIOMES. 2015;1.
IEEE
[1]
R. De Weirdt and T. Van de Wiele, “Micromanagement in the gut : microenvironmental factors govern colon mucosal biofilm structure and functionality,” NPJ BIOFILMS AND MICROBIOMES, vol. 1, 2015.
@article{8200693,
  abstract     = {{The human gut microbiome provides us with functional features that we did not have to evolve ourselves and can be viewed as a structured microbial community that operates like a microbial organ within the human host. A minor but important part of this microbiome is the ability to colonise and thrive within the mucous layer that covers the colon epithelium. These mucosal microbes intimately interact with the intestinal tissue and seem to be important modulators of human health. Embedded in the host-secreted mucous matrix, they form a 'mucosal biofilm' with a distinct composition and functionality. In this review, we provide evidence that six specific (micro) environmental factors near the colon mucosa shape and determine mucosal biofilm formation and stability, that is, (1) mucous rigidity, (2) gradients of fluid shear, (3) radial oxygen gradients, (4) secretions of host defense molecules, (5) the presence of a rich but challenging nutrient platform and (6) the presence of niches at the colon epithelial surface. In addition, it appears that microbes actively participate in shaping their mucosal environment. Current insights into the interaction between mucosal microbes and their environment are rather limited, and many questions regarding the contribution of mucosal biofilm functionality and stability to human health remain to be answered. Yet, given the higher potency of mucosal microbes than their luminal counterparts to interact with the host, new insights can accelerate the development of novel disease-preventive or therapeutic strategies.}},
  articleno    = {{15026}},
  author       = {{De Weirdt, Rosemarie and Van de Wiele, Tom}},
  issn         = {{2055-5008}},
  journal      = {{NPJ BIOFILMS AND MICROBIOMES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{6}},
  title        = {{Micromanagement in the gut : microenvironmental factors govern colon mucosal biofilm structure and functionality}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npjbiofilms.2015.26}},
  volume       = {{1}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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