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Heart vs hard drive: children learn more from a human tutor than a social robot

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Abstract
The field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is increasingly exploring the use of social robots for educating children. Commonly, non-academic audiences will ask how robots compare to humans in terms of learning outcomes. This question is also interesting for social roboticists as humans are often assumed to be an upper benchmark for social behaviour, which influences learning. This paper presents a study in which learning gains of children are compared when taught the same mathematics material by a robot tutor and a non-expert human tutor. Significant learning occurs in both conditions, but the children improve more with the human tutor. This difference is not statistically significant, but the effect sizes fall in line with findings from other literature showing that humans outperform technology for tutoring. We discuss these findings in the context of applying social robots in child education.

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Kennedy, J et al. “Heart Vs Hard Drive: Children Learn More from a Human Tutor Than a Social Robot.” ACMIEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. NEW YORK: IEEE, 2016. 451–452. Print.
APA
Kennedy, J., Baxter, P., Senft, E., & Belpaeme, T. (2016). Heart vs hard drive: children learn more from a human tutor than a social robot. ACMIEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (pp. 451–452). Presented at the 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), NEW YORK: IEEE.
Chicago author-date
Kennedy, J, P Baxter, E Senft, and Tony Belpaeme. 2016. “Heart Vs Hard Drive: Children Learn More from a Human Tutor Than a Social Robot.” In ACMIEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, 451–452. NEW YORK: IEEE.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kennedy, J, P Baxter, E Senft, and Tony Belpaeme. 2016. “Heart Vs Hard Drive: Children Learn More from a Human Tutor Than a Social Robot.” In ACMIEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, 451–452. NEW YORK: IEEE.
Vancouver
1.
Kennedy J, Baxter P, Senft E, Belpaeme T. Heart vs hard drive: children learn more from a human tutor than a social robot. ACMIEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. NEW YORK: IEEE; 2016. p. 451–2.
IEEE
[1]
J. Kennedy, P. Baxter, E. Senft, and T. Belpaeme, “Heart vs hard drive: children learn more from a human tutor than a social robot,” in ACMIEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, Christchurch, NEW ZEALAND, 2016, pp. 451–452.
@inproceedings{8197580,
  abstract     = {The field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is increasingly exploring the use of social robots for educating children. Commonly, non-academic audiences will ask how robots compare to humans in terms of learning outcomes. This question is also interesting for social roboticists as humans are often assumed to be an upper benchmark for social behaviour, which influences learning. This paper presents a study in which learning gains of children are compared when taught the same mathematics material by a robot tutor and a non-expert human tutor. Significant learning occurs in both conditions, but the children improve more with the human tutor. This difference is not statistically significant, but the effect sizes fall in line with findings from other literature showing that humans outperform technology for tutoring. We discuss these findings in the context of applying social robots in child education.},
  author       = {Kennedy, J and Baxter, P and Senft, E and Belpaeme, Tony},
  booktitle    = {ACMIEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction},
  isbn         = {978-1-4673-8370-7},
  issn         = {2167-2121},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Christchurch, NEW ZEALAND},
  pages        = {451--452},
  publisher    = {IEEE},
  title        = {Heart vs hard drive: children learn more from a human tutor than a social robot},
  year         = {2016},
}

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