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Abstract
Several experiments have been carried out that revealed weaknesses of the current Text-To-Speech (TTS) systems in their emotional expressivity. Although some TTS systems allow XML-based representations of prosodic and/or phonetic variables, few publications considered, as a pre-processing stage, the use of intelligent text processing to detect affective information that can be used to tailor the parameters needed for emotional expressivity. This paper describes a technique for an automatic prosodic parameterization based on affective clues. This technique recognizes the affective information conveyed in a text and, accordingly to its emotional connotation, assigns appropriate pitch accents and other prosodic parameters by XML-tagging. This pre-processing assists the TTS system to generate synthesized speech that contains emotional clues. The experimental results are encouraging and suggest the possibility of suitable emotional expressivity in speech synthesis.
Keywords
speech synthesis, emotional expressivity, TTS, MaryXML, intelligent text processing, affect sensing

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MLA
Ferreira Rebordao, Antonio, et al. “How to Improve TTS Systems for Emotional Expressivity.” INTERSPEECH 2009: 10TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION 2009, VOLS 1-5, International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2009, pp. 520–23.
APA
Ferreira Rebordao, A., Shaikh, M. A. M., Hirose, K., & Minematsu, N. (2009). How to improve TTS systems for emotional expressivity. INTERSPEECH 2009: 10TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION 2009, VOLS 1-5, 520–523. Baixas, France: International Speech Communication Association (ISCA).
Chicago author-date
Ferreira Rebordao, Antonio, Mostafa Al Masum Shaikh, Keikichi Hirose, and Nobuaki Minematsu. 2009. “How to Improve TTS Systems for Emotional Expressivity.” In INTERSPEECH 2009: 10TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION 2009, VOLS 1-5, 520–23. Baixas, France: International Speech Communication Association (ISCA).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ferreira Rebordao, Antonio, Mostafa Al Masum Shaikh, Keikichi Hirose, and Nobuaki Minematsu. 2009. “How to Improve TTS Systems for Emotional Expressivity.” In INTERSPEECH 2009: 10TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION 2009, VOLS 1-5, 520–523. Baixas, France: International Speech Communication Association (ISCA).
Vancouver
1.
Ferreira Rebordao A, Shaikh MAM, Hirose K, Minematsu N. How to improve TTS systems for emotional expressivity. In: INTERSPEECH 2009: 10TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION 2009, VOLS 1-5. Baixas, France: International Speech Communication Association (ISCA); 2009. p. 520–3.
IEEE
[1]
A. Ferreira Rebordao, M. A. M. Shaikh, K. Hirose, and N. Minematsu, “How to improve TTS systems for emotional expressivity,” in INTERSPEECH 2009: 10TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION 2009, VOLS 1-5, Brighton, UK, 2009, pp. 520–523.
@inproceedings{817056,
  abstract     = {{Several experiments have been carried out that revealed weaknesses of the current Text-To-Speech (TTS) systems in their emotional expressivity. Although some TTS systems allow XML-based representations of prosodic and/or phonetic variables, few publications considered, as a pre-processing stage, the use of intelligent text processing to detect affective information that can be used to tailor the parameters needed for emotional expressivity. This paper describes a technique for an automatic prosodic parameterization based on affective clues. This technique recognizes the affective information conveyed in a text and, accordingly to its emotional connotation, assigns appropriate pitch accents and other prosodic parameters by XML-tagging. This pre-processing assists the TTS system to generate synthesized speech that contains emotional clues. The experimental results are encouraging and suggest the possibility of suitable emotional expressivity in speech synthesis.}},
  author       = {{Ferreira Rebordao, Antonio and Shaikh, Mostafa Al Masum and Hirose, Keikichi and Minematsu, Nobuaki}},
  booktitle    = {{INTERSPEECH 2009: 10TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION 2009, VOLS 1-5}},
  isbn         = {{9781615676927}},
  issn         = {{1990-9772}},
  keywords     = {{speech synthesis,emotional expressivity,TTS,MaryXML,intelligent text processing,affect sensing}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Brighton, UK}},
  pages        = {{520--523}},
  publisher    = {{International Speech Communication Association (ISCA)}},
  title        = {{How to improve TTS systems for emotional expressivity}},
  year         = {{2009}},
}

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