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Abstract
Speech can express subjective meanings and intents that, in order to be fully understood, rely heavily in its affective perception. Some Text-to-Speech (TTS) systems reveal weaknesses in their emotional expressivity but this situation can be improved by a better parametrization of the acoustic and prosodic parameters. This paper describes an approach for better emotional expressivity in a speech synthesizer. Our technique uses several linguistic resources that can recognize emotions in a text and assigns appropriate parameters to the synthesizer to carry out a suitable speech synthesis. For evaluation purposes we considered the MARY TTS system to readout ”happy” and ”sad” news. The preliminary perceptual test results are encouraging and human judges, by listening to the synthesized speech obtained with our approach, could perceive ”happy” emotions much better than compared to when they listened non- affective synthesized speech.
Keywords
speech synthesis, emotion recognition, emotional speech synthesis, MARY TTS system, linguistic resources, affective information, emotional expressivity, text-to-speech system

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MLA
Shaikh, Mostafa Al Masum, et al. “Emotional Speech Synthesis by Sensing Affective Information from Text.” Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction and Workshops (ACII 2009), IEEE, 2009, doi:10.1109/ACII.2009.5349515.
APA
Shaikh, M. A. M., Ferreira Rebordao, A., Hirose, K., & Ishizuka, M. (2009). Emotional speech synthesis by sensing affective information from text. Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction and Workshops (ACII 2009). Presented at the 3rd International conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII 2009), Amsterdam, The Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACII.2009.5349515
Chicago author-date
Shaikh, Mostafa Al Masum, Antonio Ferreira Rebordao, Keikichi Hirose, and Mitsuru Ishizuka. 2009. “Emotional Speech Synthesis by Sensing Affective Information from Text.” In Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction and Workshops (ACII 2009). Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACII.2009.5349515.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Shaikh, Mostafa Al Masum, Antonio Ferreira Rebordao, Keikichi Hirose, and Mitsuru Ishizuka. 2009. “Emotional Speech Synthesis by Sensing Affective Information from Text.” In Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction and Workshops (ACII 2009). Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE. doi:10.1109/ACII.2009.5349515.
Vancouver
1.
Shaikh MAM, Ferreira Rebordao A, Hirose K, Ishizuka M. Emotional speech synthesis by sensing affective information from text. In: Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction and Workshops (ACII 2009). Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE; 2009.
IEEE
[1]
M. A. M. Shaikh, A. Ferreira Rebordao, K. Hirose, and M. Ishizuka, “Emotional speech synthesis by sensing affective information from text,” in Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction and Workshops (ACII 2009), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009.
@inproceedings{817042,
  abstract     = {{Speech can express subjective meanings and intents that, in order to be fully understood, rely heavily in its affective perception. Some Text-to-Speech (TTS) systems reveal weaknesses in their emotional expressivity but this situation can be improved by a better parametrization of the acoustic and prosodic parameters. This paper describes an approach for better emotional expressivity in a speech synthesizer. Our technique uses several linguistic resources that can recognize emotions in a text and assigns appropriate parameters to the synthesizer to carry out a suitable speech synthesis. For evaluation purposes we considered the MARY TTS system to readout ”happy” and ”sad” news. The preliminary perceptual test results are encouraging and human judges, by listening to the synthesized speech obtained with our approach, could perceive ”happy” emotions much better than compared to when they listened non- affective synthesized speech.}},
  author       = {{Shaikh, Mostafa Al Masum and Ferreira Rebordao, Antonio and Hirose, Keikichi and Ishizuka, Mitsuru}},
  booktitle    = {{Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction and Workshops (ACII 2009)}},
  isbn         = {{978-1-4244-4800-5}},
  keywords     = {{speech synthesis,emotion recognition,emotional speech synthesis,MARY TTS system,linguistic resources,affective information,emotional expressivity,text-to-speech system}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Amsterdam, The Netherlands}},
  pages        = {{6}},
  publisher    = {{IEEE}},
  title        = {{Emotional speech synthesis by sensing affective information from text}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACII.2009.5349515}},
  year         = {{2009}},
}

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