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Feasibility of a small‑scale production system approach for palm sugar sweetened dark chocolate

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Abstract
Palm sugar is highly produced and patronised in the South Eastern part of Asia, e.g. Indonesia which is also the world’s third largest cocoa producer. Recently, interest in palm sugar sweetened chocolate and better approaches for production methods that can be easily applied in developing countries are rising. This work investigated the influence of palm sugar on the quality attributes of dark chocolate in terms of fineness, rheological behaviour and aroma profile compared to that of sucrose. Furthermore, a small-scale processing approach using the combination of Stephan mixer and ball mill compared to the conventional method was investigated. The results showed that palm sugar sweetened chocolate exhibited a higher viscosity, a higher particle volume fraction and a higher degree of particle agglomeration due to its relatively high moisture and presence of glucose and fructose. Furthermore, chocolates sweetened with palm sugar displayed a distinctive aroma profile with the abundant presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP) and pyrazine-based compounds. Applying the alternative processing method leaded to the production of chocolate with rather high degree of agglomeration and viscosity as compared to chocolate produced by means of conventional processing. Moreover, the alternative processing method resulted in the presence of myrcene, ß-trans-ocimene and isoamyl acetate which were not observed in the conventionally produced chocolates. The alternative processing method, however, seems to have potential for small scale production of dark chocolate sweetened with palm sugar.
Keywords
palm sugar, dark chocolate, chocolate alternative processing, rheological behaviour, aroma profile, PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION, CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS-SPECTROMETRY, THEOBROMA-CACAO L., MILK CHOCOLATE, BALL MILL, VOLATILE COMPOUNDS, FLOW PROPERTIES, RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, COCOA FERMENTATION, SENSORY PROPERTIES

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Chicago
Saputro, Arifin Dwi, Davy Van de Walle, Sheida Kadivar, Michael Amoafo Mensah, Jim Van Durme, and Koen Dewettinck. 2017. “Feasibility of a Small‑scale Production System Approach for Palm Sugar Sweetened Dark Chocolate.” European Food Research and Technology 243 (6): 955–967.
APA
Saputro, A. D., Van de Walle, D., Kadivar, S., Amoafo Mensah, M., Van Durme, J., & Dewettinck, K. (2017). Feasibility of a small‑scale production system approach for palm sugar sweetened dark chocolate. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 243(6), 955–967.
Vancouver
1.
Saputro AD, Van de Walle D, Kadivar S, Amoafo Mensah M, Van Durme J, Dewettinck K. Feasibility of a small‑scale production system approach for palm sugar sweetened dark chocolate. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY. 2017;243(6):955–67.
MLA
Saputro, Arifin Dwi et al. “Feasibility of a Small‑scale Production System Approach for Palm Sugar Sweetened Dark Chocolate.” EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 243.6 (2017): 955–967. Print.
@article{8133016,
  abstract     = {Palm sugar is highly produced and patronised in the South Eastern part of Asia, e.g. Indonesia which is also the world’s third largest cocoa producer. Recently, interest in palm sugar sweetened chocolate and better approaches for production methods that can be easily applied in developing countries are rising. This work investigated the influence of palm sugar on the quality attributes of dark chocolate in terms of fineness, rheological behaviour and aroma profile compared to that of sucrose. Furthermore, a small-scale processing approach using the combination of Stephan mixer and ball mill compared to the conventional method was investigated. The results showed that palm sugar sweetened chocolate exhibited a higher viscosity, a higher particle volume fraction and a higher degree of particle agglomeration due to its relatively high moisture and presence of glucose and fructose. Furthermore, chocolates sweetened with palm sugar displayed a distinctive aroma profile with the abundant presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP) and pyrazine-based compounds. Applying the alternative processing method leaded to the production of chocolate with rather high degree of agglomeration and viscosity as compared to chocolate produced by means of conventional processing. Moreover, the alternative processing method resulted in the presence of myrcene, ß-trans-ocimene and isoamyl acetate which were not observed in the conventionally produced chocolates. The alternative processing method, however, seems to have potential for small scale production of dark chocolate sweetened with palm sugar.},
  author       = {Saputro, Arifin Dwi and Van de Walle, Davy and Kadivar, Sheida and Amoafo Mensah, Michael and Van Durme, Jim and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {1438-2377},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {palm sugar,dark chocolate,chocolate alternative processing,rheological behaviour,aroma profile,PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION,CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS-SPECTROMETRY,THEOBROMA-CACAO L.,MILK CHOCOLATE,BALL MILL,VOLATILE COMPOUNDS,FLOW PROPERTIES,RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES,COCOA FERMENTATION,SENSORY PROPERTIES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {955--967},
  title        = {Feasibility of a small‑scale production system approach for palm sugar sweetened dark chocolate},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-016-2812-z},
  volume       = {243},
  year         = {2017},
}

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