Advanced search

Escape mechanisms of African trypanosomes : why trypanosomosis is keeping us awake

(2015) PARASITOLOGY. 142(3). p.417-427
Author
Organization
Abstract
African trypanosomes have been around for more than 100 million years, and have adapted to survival in a very wide host range. While various indigenous African mammalian host species display a tolerant phenotype towards this parasitic infection, and hence serve as perpetual reservoirs, many commercially important livestock species are highly disease susceptible. When considering humans, they too display a highly sensitive disease progression phenotype for infections with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, while being intrinsically resistant to infections with other trypanosome species. As extracellular trypanosomes proliferate and live freely in the bloodstream and lymphatics, they are constantly exposed to the immune system. Due to co-evolution, this environment however no longer poses a hostile threat, but has become the niche environment where trypanosomes thrive and obligatory await transmission through the bites of tsetse flies or other haematophagic vectors, ideally without causing severe side infection-associated pathology to their host. Hence, African trypanosomes have acquired various mechanisms to manipulate and control the host immune response, evading effective elimination. Despite the extensive research into trypanosomosis over the past 40 years, many aspects of the anti-parasite immune response remain to be solved and no vaccine is currently available. Here we review the recent work on the different escape mechanisms employed by African Trypanosomes to ensure infection chronicity and transmission potential.
Keywords
African trypanosomes, escape mechanisms, immune modulation, inflammation, antigenic variation, HIGH-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN, HAPTOGLOBIN-HEMOGLOBIN RECEPTOR, BLOOD-STREAM FORMS, NORMAL HUMAN-SERUM, BRUCEI-GAMBIENSE, ANTIGENIC VARIATION, IMMUNE-RESPONSE, FLAGELLAR POCKET, INNATE IMMUNITY, LYTIC FACTOR

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Cnops, J, Stefan Magez, and C De Trez. 2015. “Escape Mechanisms of African Trypanosomes : Why Trypanosomosis Is Keeping Us Awake.” Parasitology 142 (3): 417–427.
APA
Cnops, J, Magez, S., & De Trez, C. (2015). Escape mechanisms of African trypanosomes : why trypanosomosis is keeping us awake. PARASITOLOGY, 142(3), 417–427.
Vancouver
1.
Cnops J, Magez S, De Trez C. Escape mechanisms of African trypanosomes : why trypanosomosis is keeping us awake. PARASITOLOGY. 2015;142(3):417–27.
MLA
Cnops, J, Stefan Magez, and C De Trez. “Escape Mechanisms of African Trypanosomes : Why Trypanosomosis Is Keeping Us Awake.” PARASITOLOGY 142.3 (2015): 417–427. Print.
@article{8131636,
  abstract     = {African trypanosomes have been around for more than 100 million years, and have adapted to survival in a very wide host range. While various indigenous African mammalian host species display a tolerant phenotype towards this parasitic infection, and hence serve as perpetual reservoirs, many commercially important livestock species are highly disease susceptible. When considering humans, they too display a highly sensitive disease progression phenotype for infections with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, while being intrinsically resistant to infections with other trypanosome species. As extracellular trypanosomes proliferate and live freely in the bloodstream and lymphatics, they are constantly exposed to the immune system. Due to co-evolution, this environment however no longer poses a hostile threat, but has become the niche environment where trypanosomes thrive and obligatory await transmission through the bites of tsetse flies or other haematophagic vectors, ideally without causing severe side infection-associated pathology to their host. Hence, African trypanosomes have acquired various mechanisms to manipulate and control the host immune response, evading effective elimination. Despite the extensive research into trypanosomosis over the past 40 years, many aspects of the anti-parasite immune response remain to be solved and no vaccine is currently available. Here we review the recent work on the different escape mechanisms employed by African Trypanosomes to ensure infection chronicity and transmission potential.},
  author       = {Cnops, J and Magez, Stefan and De Trez, C},
  issn         = {0031-1820},
  journal      = {PARASITOLOGY},
  keywords     = {African trypanosomes,escape mechanisms,immune modulation,inflammation,antigenic variation,HIGH-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN,HAPTOGLOBIN-HEMOGLOBIN RECEPTOR,BLOOD-STREAM FORMS,NORMAL HUMAN-SERUM,BRUCEI-GAMBIENSE,ANTIGENIC VARIATION,IMMUNE-RESPONSE,FLAGELLAR POCKET,INNATE IMMUNITY,LYTIC FACTOR},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {417--427},
  title        = {Escape mechanisms of African trypanosomes : why trypanosomosis is keeping us awake},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182014001838},
  volume       = {142},
  year         = {2015},
}

Altmetric
View in Altmetric
Web of Science
Times cited: