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Familiality of co-existing ADHD and tic disorders: evidence from a large sibling study

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Abstract
Background: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD-FTD runs in families. Aim: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD-FTD increases the risk of ADHDH+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general. Methods: The study is based on the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. The present sub-sample of 2815 individuals included ADHD-index patients with co-existing TD (ADHD-FTD, n = 262) and without TD (ADHD+TD, n = 947) as well as their 1606 full siblings (n = 358 of the ADHDH+TD index patients and n = 1248 of the ADHD-TD index patients). We assessed psychopathological symptoms in index patients and siblings by using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the parent and teacher Conners' long version Rating Scales (CRS). For disorder classification the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS-Interview) was applied in n = 271 children. Odds ratio with the GENMOD procedure (PROCGENMOD) was used to test if the risk for ADHD, TD, and ADHD-FTD in siblings was associated with the related index patients' diagnoses. In order to get an estimate for specificity we compared the four groups for general psychopathological symptoms. Results: Co-existing ADHD-FTD in index patients increased the risk of both comorbid ADHD-FTD and TD in the siblings of these index patients. These effects did not extend to general psychopathology. Interpretation: Co-existence of ADHD+FTD may segregate in families. The same holds true for TD (without ADHD). Hence, the segregation of TD (included in both groups) seems to be the determining factor, independent of further behavioral problems. This close relationship between ADHD and TD supports the clinical approach to carefully assess ADHD in any case of TD.
Keywords
DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, CRITERION VALIDITY, TOURETTES DISORDER, COMORBIDITY, RELIABILITY, ASSOCIATION

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MLA
Roessner, V et al. “Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study.” FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 7 (2016): n. pag. Print.
APA
Roessner, V., Banaschewski, T., Becker, A., Buse, J., Wanderer, S., Buitelaar, J., Sergeant, J., et al. (2016). Familiality of co-existing ADHD and tic disorders: evidence from a large sibling study. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, 7.
Chicago author-date
Roessner, V, T Banaschewski, A Becker, J Buse, S Wanderer, JK Buitelaar, JA Sergeant, et al. 2016. “Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study.” Frontiers in Psychology 7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Roessner, V, T Banaschewski, A Becker, J Buse, S Wanderer, JK Buitelaar, JA Sergeant, Edmund Barke, M Gill, I Manor, A Miranda, F Mulas, RD Oades, Herbert Roeyers, HC Steinhausen, SV Faraone, P Asherson, and A Rothenberger. 2016. “Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study.” Frontiers in Psychology 7.
Vancouver
1.
Roessner V, Banaschewski T, Becker A, Buse J, Wanderer S, Buitelaar J, et al. Familiality of co-existing ADHD and tic disorders: evidence from a large sibling study. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY. LAUSANNE: FRONTIERS MEDIA SA; 2016;7.
IEEE
[1]
V. Roessner et al., “Familiality of co-existing ADHD and tic disorders: evidence from a large sibling study,” FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 7, 2016.
@article{8123898,
  abstract     = {Background: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD-FTD runs in families. Aim: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD-FTD increases the risk of ADHDH+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general. 

Methods: The study is based on the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. The present sub-sample of 2815 individuals included ADHD-index patients with co-existing TD (ADHD-FTD, n = 262) and without TD (ADHD+TD, n = 947) as well as their 1606 full siblings (n = 358 of the ADHDH+TD index patients and n = 1248 of the ADHD-TD index patients). We assessed psychopathological symptoms in index patients and siblings by using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the parent and teacher Conners' long version Rating Scales (CRS). For disorder classification the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS-Interview) was applied in n = 271 children. Odds ratio with the GENMOD procedure (PROCGENMOD) was used to test if the risk for ADHD, TD, and ADHD-FTD in siblings was associated with the related index patients' diagnoses. In order to get an estimate for specificity we compared the four groups for general psychopathological symptoms. 

Results: Co-existing ADHD-FTD in index patients increased the risk of both comorbid ADHD-FTD and TD in the siblings of these index patients. These effects did not extend to general psychopathology. 

Interpretation: Co-existence of ADHD+FTD may segregate in families. The same holds true for TD (without ADHD). Hence, the segregation of TD (included in both groups) seems to be the determining factor, independent of further behavioral problems. This close relationship between ADHD and TD supports the clinical approach to carefully assess ADHD in any case of TD.},
  articleno    = {1060},
  author       = {Roessner, V and Banaschewski, T and Becker, A and Buse, J and Wanderer, S and Buitelaar, JK and Sergeant, JA and Barke, Edmund and Gill, M and Manor, I and Miranda, A and Mulas, F and Oades, RD and Roeyers, Herbert and Steinhausen, HC and Faraone, SV and Asherson, P and Rothenberger, A},
  issn         = {1664-1078},
  journal      = {FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY},
  keywords     = {DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,CRITERION VALIDITY,TOURETTES DISORDER,COMORBIDITY,RELIABILITY,ASSOCIATION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {8},
  publisher    = {FRONTIERS MEDIA SA},
  title        = {Familiality of co-existing ADHD and tic disorders: evidence from a large sibling study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01060},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2016},
}

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