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Reinforced ice structures: in the footsteps of Candela

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Abstract
Based on project experience over the last years, fibre reinforced ice has proven to be a strong and suitable building material for temporary structures in a cold environment. Unlike traditional igloo structures, no stacked blocks are used. Instead, relatively thin shells are created by spraying subsequent thin layers of water mixed with cellulose fibres on inflatable formwork which is removed afterwards. This paper describes the overall design process and construction of a full-scale cellulose-ice composite structure, inspired by Félix Candela's famous reinforced concrete hypar shells. The project was built by university students and staff in the framework of an international project in Finland during the winter of early 2016.

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MLA
Belis, Jan, Bram Ronsse, Kenny Martens, et al. “Reinforced Ice Structures: In the Footsteps of Candela.” Structures and Architecture. Ed. Paulo JS Cruz. London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. 376–382. Print.
APA
Belis, Jan, Ronsse, B., Martens, K., Van Lancker, B., Cruz, P. J., & Deruyter, G. (2016). Reinforced ice structures: in the footsteps of Candela. In P. J. Cruz (Ed.), Structures and Architecture (pp. 376–382). Presented at the Structures and Architecture (ICSA2016), London: Taylor & Francis Group.
Chicago author-date
Belis, Jan, Bram Ronsse, Kenny Martens, Bert Van Lancker, Paulo JS Cruz, and Greet Deruyter. 2016. “Reinforced Ice Structures: In the Footsteps of Candela.” In Structures and Architecture, ed. Paulo JS Cruz, 376–382. London: Taylor & Francis Group.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Belis, Jan, Bram Ronsse, Kenny Martens, Bert Van Lancker, Paulo JS Cruz, and Greet Deruyter. 2016. “Reinforced Ice Structures: In the Footsteps of Candela.” In Structures and Architecture, ed. Paulo JS Cruz, 376–382. London: Taylor & Francis Group.
Vancouver
1.
Belis J, Ronsse B, Martens K, Van Lancker B, Cruz PJ, Deruyter G. Reinforced ice structures: in the footsteps of Candela. In: Cruz PJ, editor. Structures and Architecture. London: Taylor & Francis Group; 2016. p. 376–82.
IEEE
[1]
J. Belis, B. Ronsse, K. Martens, B. Van Lancker, P. J. Cruz, and G. Deruyter, “Reinforced ice structures: in the footsteps of Candela,” in Structures and Architecture, Guimarães, Portugal, 2016, pp. 376–382.
@inproceedings{8084523,
  abstract     = {Based on project experience over the last years, fibre reinforced ice has proven to be a strong and suitable building material for temporary structures in a cold environment. Unlike traditional igloo structures, no stacked blocks are used. Instead, relatively thin shells are created by spraying subsequent thin layers of water mixed with cellulose fibres on inflatable formwork which is removed afterwards. This paper describes the overall design process and construction of a full-scale cellulose-ice composite structure, inspired by Félix Candela's famous reinforced concrete hypar shells. The project was built by university students and staff in the framework of an international project in Finland during the winter of early 2016.},
  author       = {Belis, Jan and Ronsse, Bram and Martens, Kenny and Van Lancker, Bert and Cruz, Paulo JS and Deruyter, Greet},
  booktitle    = {Structures and Architecture},
  editor       = {Cruz, Paulo JS},
  isbn         = {978-1-138-02651-3},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Guimarães, Portugal},
  pages        = {376--382},
  publisher    = {Taylor & Francis Group},
  title        = {Reinforced ice structures: in the footsteps of Candela},
  year         = {2016},
}