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Residues of chlortetracycline, doxycycline and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim in intestinal content and feces of pigs due to cross-contamination of feed

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Abstract
Background: Cross-contamination of feed with low concentrations of antimicrobials can occur at production, transport and/or farm level. Concerns are rising about possible effects of this contaminated feed on resistance selection in the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, an experiment with pigs was set up, in which intestinal and fecal concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DOX) and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (SDZ-TRIM) were determined after administration of feed containing a 3 % carry-over level of these antimicrobials. Results: The poor oral bioavailability of tetracyclines resulted in rather high concentrations in cecal and colonic content and feces at steady-state conditions. A mean concentration of 10 mg/kg CTC and 4 mg/kg DOX in the feces was reached, which is higher than concentrations that were shown to cause resistance selection. On the other hand, lower mean levels of SDZ (0.7 mg/kg) and TRIM (< limit of detection of 0.016 mg/kg) were found in the feces, corresponding with the high oral bioavailability of SDZ and TRIM in pigs. Conclusions: The relation between the oral bioavailability and intestinal concentrations of the tested antimicrobials, may be of help in assessing the risks of cross-contaminated feed. However, future research is needed to confirm our results and to evaluate the effects of these detected concentrations on resistance selection in the intestinal microbiota of pigs.
Keywords
Oral bioavailability, Intestinal content, Cross-contamination, Chlortetracycline, Doxycycline, Sulfadiazine, Pigs, Trimethoprim, Feces, NONFASTED YOUNG-PIGS, ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE, ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY, MASS-SPECTROMETRY, FASTED PIGS, PHARMACOKINETICS, TISSUES, SELECTION

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Chicago
Peeters, Laura, Els Daeseleire, Mathias Devreese, Geertrui Rasschaert, Annemieke Smet, Jeroen Dewulf, Marc Heyndrickx, et al. 2016. “Residues of Chlortetracycline, Doxycycline and Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim in Intestinal Content and Feces of Pigs Due to Cross-contamination of Feed.” Bmc Veterinary Research 12.
APA
Peeters, Laura, Daeseleire, E., Devreese, M., Rasschaert, G., Smet, A., Dewulf, J., Heyndrickx, M., et al. (2016). Residues of chlortetracycline, doxycycline and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim in intestinal content and feces of pigs due to cross-contamination of feed. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, 12.
Vancouver
1.
Peeters L, Daeseleire E, Devreese M, Rasschaert G, Smet A, Dewulf J, et al. Residues of chlortetracycline, doxycycline and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim in intestinal content and feces of pigs due to cross-contamination of feed. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2016;12.
MLA
Peeters, Laura, Els Daeseleire, Mathias Devreese, et al. “Residues of Chlortetracycline, Doxycycline and Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim in Intestinal Content and Feces of Pigs Due to Cross-contamination of Feed.” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 12 (2016): n. pag. Print.
@article{8084057,
  abstract     = {Background: Cross-contamination of feed with low concentrations of antimicrobials can occur at production, transport and/or farm level. Concerns are rising about possible effects of this contaminated feed on resistance selection in the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, an experiment with pigs was set up, in which intestinal and fecal concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DOX) and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (SDZ-TRIM) were determined after administration of feed containing a 3 \% carry-over level of these antimicrobials.
Results: The poor oral bioavailability of tetracyclines resulted in rather high concentrations in cecal and colonic content and feces at steady-state conditions. A mean concentration of 10 mg/kg CTC and 4 mg/kg DOX in the feces was reached, which is higher than concentrations that were shown to cause resistance selection. On the other hand, lower mean levels of SDZ (0.7 mg/kg) and TRIM ({\textlangle} limit of detection of 0.016 mg/kg) were found in the feces, corresponding with the high oral bioavailability of SDZ and TRIM in pigs.
Conclusions: The relation between the oral bioavailability and intestinal concentrations of the tested antimicrobials, may be of help in assessing the risks of cross-contaminated feed. However, future research is needed to confirm our results and to evaluate the effects of these detected concentrations on resistance selection in the intestinal microbiota of pigs.},
  articleno    = {209},
  author       = {Peeters, Laura and Daeseleire, Els and Devreese, Mathias and Rasschaert, Geertrui and Smet, Annemieke and Dewulf, Jeroen and Heyndrickx, Marc and Imberechts, Hein and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Butaye, Patrick and Croubels, Siska},
  issn         = {1746-6148},
  journal      = {BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {Oral bioavailability,Intestinal content,Cross-contamination,Chlortetracycline,Doxycycline,Sulfadiazine,Pigs,Trimethoprim,Feces,NONFASTED YOUNG-PIGS,ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE,ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY,MASS-SPECTROMETRY,FASTED PIGS,PHARMACOKINETICS,TISSUES,SELECTION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Residues of chlortetracycline, doxycycline and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim in intestinal content and feces of pigs due to cross-contamination of feed},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0803-8},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2016},
}

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