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Abstract
CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1-5 was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), as calculated by the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation, or albuminuria >30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1-5 and CKD stages 3-5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1-5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% Cl, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3-5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.
Keywords
PREVENTION, EQUATION, RISK, RENAL-FUNCTION, UNITED-STATES, SERUM CREATININE, CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE, OBESITY, HEALTH

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Chicago
Brück, Katharina, Vianda S Stel, Giovanni Gambaro, Stein Hallan, Henry Völzke, Johan Ärnlöv, Mika Kastarinen, et al. 2016. “CKD Prevalence Varies Across the European General Population.” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 27 (7): 2135–2147.
APA
Brück, K., Stel, V. S., Gambaro, G., Hallan, S., Völzke, H., Ärnlöv, J., Kastarinen, M., et al. (2016). CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY, 27(7), 2135–2147.
Vancouver
1.
Brück K, Stel VS, Gambaro G, Hallan S, Völzke H, Ärnlöv J, et al. CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY. 2016;27(7):2135–47.
MLA
Brück, Katharina, Vianda S Stel, Giovanni Gambaro, et al. “CKD Prevalence Varies Across the European General Population.” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY 27.7 (2016): 2135–2147. Print.
@article{8082022,
  abstract     = {CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1-5 was defined as eGFR {\textlangle}60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), as calculated by the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation, or albuminuria {\textrangle}30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3-5 was defined as eGFR{\textlangle}60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1-5 and CKD stages 3-5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1-5 prevalence varied between 3.31\% (95\% confidence interval [95\% CI], 3.30\% to 3.33\%) in Norway and 17.3\% (95\% Cl, 16.5\% to 18.1\%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3-5 prevalence varied between 1.0\% (95\% CI, 0.7\% to 1.3\%) in central Italy and 5.9\% (95\% CI, 5.2\% to 6.6\%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.},
  author       = {Br{\"u}ck, Katharina and Stel, Vianda S and Gambaro, Giovanni and Hallan, Stein and V{\"o}lzke, Henry and {\"A}rnl{\"o}v, Johan and Kastarinen, Mika and Guessous, Idris and Vinhas, Jos{\'e} and Stengel, B{\'e}n{\'e}dicte and Brenner, Hermann and Chudek, Jerzy and Romundstad, Solfrid and Tomson, Charles and Otero Gonzalez, Alfonso and Bello, Aminu K and Ferrieres, Jean and Palmieri, Luigi and Browne, Gemma and Capuano, Vincenzo and Van Biesen, Wim and Zoccali, Carmine and Gansevoort, Ron and Navis, Gerjan and Rothenbacher, Dietrich and Ferraro, Pietro Manuel and Nitsch, Dorothea and Wanner, Christoph and Jager, Kitty J},
  issn         = {1046-6673},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY},
  keyword      = {PREVENTION,EQUATION,RISK,RENAL-FUNCTION,UNITED-STATES,SERUM CREATININE,CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE,GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE,OBESITY,HEALTH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {2135--2147},
  title        = {CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2015050542},
  volume       = {27},
  year         = {2016},
}

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