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Biovolatilization of metal(loid)s by intestinal microorganisms in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem

(2009) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 43(14). p.5249-5256
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Abstract
Methylation and hydrogenation of metal(loid)s by microorganisms are widespread and well-known processes in the environment by which mobility and in most cases toxicity are significantly enhanced in comparison to inorganic species. The human gut contains highly diverse and active microbiocenosis, yet little is known about the occurrence and importance of, microbial metal(loid) methylation and hydrogenation. In the study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model, the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME), was used for investigating volatilization of metal(loid)s by intestinal microbiota. Suspensions from different compartments of the SHIME system analogous to different parts of the human intestinal tract were incubated with different concentrations of inorganic Ge, As, Se, Sri, Sb, Te, Hg, Pb, and Bi and analyzed by gas chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Significant volatilization was found for Se, As, and Te (maximal hourly production rates relative to the amount spiked; 0.6, 2, and 9 ng/mg/h, respectively). In addition, volatile species of Sb and Bi were detected. The occurrence of AsH(3) and (CH(3))(2)Te was toxicologically important. Furthermore, mixed Se/S and mixed As/S metabolites were detected in significant amounts in the gas phase of the incubation experiments of which two metabolites, (CH(3))(2)AsSSCH(3) and CH(3)As(SCH(3))(2), are described for the first time in environmental matrices. The toxicology of these species is unknown. These. data show that the intestinal microbiota may increase the mobility of metal(loid)s, suggesting a significant modulation of their toxicity. Our research warrant further studies to investigate the extent of this process as well as the availability of metal(loid)s from different sources for microbial transformations.
Keywords
METHYLATION, IN-VITRO, TOXICITY, BIOMETHYLATION, DERIVATIVES, METALLOIDS, SPECIATION, ANTIMONY, SELENIUM, BISMUTH

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MLA
Diaz-Bone, Roland A, and Tom Van de Wiele. “Biovolatilization of Metal(loid)s by Intestinal Microorganisms in the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 43.14 (2009): 5249–5256. Print.
APA
Diaz-Bone, R. A., & Van de Wiele, T. (2009). Biovolatilization of metal(loid)s by intestinal microorganisms in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 43(14), 5249–5256.
Chicago author-date
Diaz-Bone, Roland A, and Tom Van de Wiele. 2009. “Biovolatilization of Metal(loid)s by Intestinal Microorganisms in the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem.” Environmental Science & Technology 43 (14): 5249–5256.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Diaz-Bone, Roland A, and Tom Van de Wiele. 2009. “Biovolatilization of Metal(loid)s by Intestinal Microorganisms in the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem.” Environmental Science & Technology 43 (14): 5249–5256.
Vancouver
1.
Diaz-Bone RA, Van de Wiele T. Biovolatilization of metal(loid)s by intestinal microorganisms in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 2009;43(14):5249–56.
IEEE
[1]
R. A. Diaz-Bone and T. Van de Wiele, “Biovolatilization of metal(loid)s by intestinal microorganisms in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem,” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 43, no. 14, pp. 5249–5256, 2009.
@article{8080357,
  abstract     = {Methylation and hydrogenation of metal(loid)s by microorganisms are widespread and well-known processes in the environment by which mobility and in most cases toxicity are significantly enhanced in comparison to inorganic species. The human gut contains highly diverse and active microbiocenosis, yet little is known about the occurrence and importance of, microbial metal(loid) methylation and hydrogenation. In the study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model, the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME), was used for investigating volatilization of metal(loid)s by intestinal microbiota. Suspensions from different compartments of the SHIME system analogous to different parts of the human intestinal tract were incubated with different concentrations of inorganic Ge, As, Se, Sri, Sb, Te, Hg, Pb, and Bi and analyzed by gas chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Significant volatilization was found for Se, As, and Te (maximal hourly production rates relative to the amount spiked; 0.6, 2, and 9 ng/mg/h, respectively). In addition, volatile species of Sb and Bi were detected. The occurrence of AsH(3) and (CH(3))(2)Te was toxicologically important. Furthermore, mixed Se/S and mixed As/S metabolites were detected in significant amounts in the gas phase of the incubation experiments of which two metabolites, (CH(3))(2)AsSSCH(3) and CH(3)As(SCH(3))(2), are described for the first time in environmental matrices. The toxicology of these species is unknown. These. data show that the intestinal microbiota may increase the mobility of metal(loid)s, suggesting a significant modulation of their toxicity. Our research warrant further studies to investigate the extent of this process as well as the availability of metal(loid)s from different sources for microbial transformations.},
  author       = {Diaz-Bone, Roland A and Van de Wiele, Tom},
  issn         = {0013-936X},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {METHYLATION,IN-VITRO,TOXICITY,BIOMETHYLATION,DERIVATIVES,METALLOIDS,SPECIATION,ANTIMONY,SELENIUM,BISMUTH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {14},
  pages        = {5249--5256},
  title        = {Biovolatilization of metal(loid)s by intestinal microorganisms in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es900544c},
  volume       = {43},
  year         = {2009},
}

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