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An investigation of the effect of gastrointestinal microbial activity on oral arsenic bioavailability

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Abstract
In vitro gastrointestinal (GI) microbial activity in the colon compartment facilitates the arsenic release from soils into simulated GI fluids. Consequentially, it is possible that in vitro models that neglect to include microbial activity underestimate arsenic bioaccessibility when calculating oral exposure. However, the toxicological relevance of increased arsenic release due to microbial activity is contingent upon the subsequent absorption of arsenic solubilized in the GI lumen. The objectives of this research are to: (1) assess whether microbes in the in vitro small intestine affect arsenic solubilization from soils, (2) determine whether differences in the GI microbial community result in differences in the oral bioavailability of soil-borne arsenic. In vitro GI microbial activity in the distal small intestine increased arsenic release from soils; however, these effects were unlikely to be relevant since they were transient and demonstrated small effect sizes. In vivo arsenic absorption for juvenile swine was unaffected by antibiotic treatment. Therefore, it appears that microbial effects on arsenic release do not result in increased arsenic bioavailability. However, it remains to be seen whether the results for the limited set of soils described herein can be extrapolated to arsenic contaminated sites in general.
Keywords
arsenic, Absolute bioavailability, soil contamination, ingestion exposure, colon microorganisms, IN-VITRO DIGESTION, CONTAMINATED SOILS, RISK-ASSESSMENT, GUT MICROBIOTA, BIOACCESSIBILITY, METABOLISM, SIMULATOR, ECOSYSTEM, MERCURY, RATS

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Chicago
Laird, Brian D, Kyle J James, Tom Van de Wiele, Matt Dodd, Stan W Casteel, Mark Wickstrom, and Steven D Siciliano. 2013. “An Investigation of the Effect of Gastrointestinal Microbial Activity on Oral Arsenic Bioavailability.” Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 48 (6): 612–619.
APA
Laird, B. D., James, K. J., Van de Wiele, T., Dodd, M., Casteel, S. W., Wickstrom, M., & Siciliano, S. D. (2013). An investigation of the effect of gastrointestinal microbial activity on oral arsenic bioavailability. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, 48(6), 612–619.
Vancouver
1.
Laird BD, James KJ, Van de Wiele T, Dodd M, Casteel SW, Wickstrom M, et al. An investigation of the effect of gastrointestinal microbial activity on oral arsenic bioavailability. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING. 2013;48(6):612–9.
MLA
Laird, Brian D, Kyle J James, Tom Van de Wiele, et al. “An Investigation of the Effect of Gastrointestinal Microbial Activity on Oral Arsenic Bioavailability.” JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 48.6 (2013): 612–619. Print.
@article{8080228,
  abstract     = {In vitro gastrointestinal (GI) microbial activity in the colon compartment facilitates the arsenic release from soils into simulated GI fluids. Consequentially, it is possible that in vitro models that neglect to include microbial activity underestimate arsenic bioaccessibility when calculating oral exposure. However, the toxicological relevance of increased arsenic release due to microbial activity is contingent upon the subsequent absorption of arsenic solubilized in the GI lumen. The objectives of this research are to: (1) assess whether microbes in the in vitro small intestine affect arsenic solubilization from soils, (2) determine whether differences in the GI microbial community result in differences in the oral bioavailability of soil-borne arsenic. In vitro GI microbial activity in the distal small intestine increased arsenic release from soils; however, these effects were unlikely to be relevant since they were transient and demonstrated small effect sizes. In vivo arsenic absorption for juvenile swine was unaffected by antibiotic treatment. Therefore, it appears that microbial effects on arsenic release do not result in increased arsenic bioavailability. However, it remains to be seen whether the results for the limited set of soils described herein can be extrapolated to arsenic contaminated sites in general.},
  author       = {Laird, Brian D and James, Kyle J and Van de Wiele, Tom and Dodd, Matt and Casteel, Stan W and Wickstrom, Mark and Siciliano, Steven D},
  issn         = {1093-4529},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES \& ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING},
  keyword      = {arsenic,Absolute bioavailability,soil contamination,ingestion exposure,colon microorganisms,IN-VITRO DIGESTION,CONTAMINATED SOILS,RISK-ASSESSMENT,GUT MICROBIOTA,BIOACCESSIBILITY,METABOLISM,SIMULATOR,ECOSYSTEM,MERCURY,RATS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {612--619},
  title        = {An investigation of the effect of gastrointestinal microbial activity on oral arsenic bioavailability},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2013.731357},
  volume       = {48},
  year         = {2013},
}

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