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Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running

(2017) JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES. 35(15). p.1556-1564
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Abstract
This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s-1 while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7.2 ± 3.5°) and positive foot angle (20.4 ± 4.8°) at initial contact while MFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-10.4 ± 6.3°) and more horizontal foot (1.6 ± 3.1°). Atypical RFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-3.1 ± 4.4°) and a small foot angle (7.0 ± 5.1°) at initial contact and had the highest VILR. For the RFS (Typical and Atypical RFS), foot angle at initial contact showed the highest correlation with VILR (r = -0.68). The observed higher VILR in Atypical RFS could be related to both ankle and foot kinematics and global running style that indicate a limited use of known kinematic impact absorbing "strategies" such as initial ankle dorsiflexion in MFS or initial ankle plantar flexion in Typical RFS.
Keywords
rearfoot strike, running style, midfoot strike, Foot strike pattern, loading rate, TIBIAL STRESS-FRACTURE, GROUND REACTION FORCES, STRIKE PATTERNS, LEG STIFFNESS, SHOD RUNNERS, MECHANICS, BAREFOOT, SPEED, FREQUENCY, FOREFOOT

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Chicago
Breine, Bastiaan, Philippe Malcolm, Ine Van Caekenberghe, Pieter Fiers, Edward C Frederick, and Dirk De Clercq. 2017. “Initial Foot Contact and Related Kinematics Affect Impact Loading Rate in Running.” Journal of Sports Sciences 35 (15): 1556–1564.
APA
Breine, B., Malcolm, P., Van Caekenberghe, I., Fiers, P., Frederick, E. C., & De Clercq, D. (2017). Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running. JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES, 35(15), 1556–1564.
Vancouver
1.
Breine B, Malcolm P, Van Caekenberghe I, Fiers P, Frederick EC, De Clercq D. Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running. JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES. 2017;35(15):1556–64.
MLA
Breine, Bastiaan, Philippe Malcolm, Ine Van Caekenberghe, et al. “Initial Foot Contact and Related Kinematics Affect Impact Loading Rate in Running.” JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES 35.15 (2017): 1556–1564. Print.
@article{8079222,
  abstract     = {This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m {\textperiodcentered} s-1 while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7.2 {\textpm} 3.5{\textdegree}) and positive foot angle (20.4 {\textpm} 4.8{\textdegree}) at initial contact while MFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-10.4 {\textpm} 6.3{\textdegree}) and more horizontal foot (1.6 {\textpm} 3.1{\textdegree}). Atypical RFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-3.1 {\textpm} 4.4{\textdegree}) and a small foot angle (7.0 {\textpm} 5.1{\textdegree}) at initial contact and had the highest VILR. For the RFS (Typical and Atypical RFS), foot angle at initial contact showed the highest correlation with VILR (r = -0.68). The observed higher VILR in Atypical RFS could be related to both ankle and foot kinematics and global running style that indicate a limited use of known kinematic impact absorbing {\textacutedbl}strategies{\textacutedbl} such as initial ankle dorsiflexion in MFS or initial ankle plantar flexion in Typical RFS.},
  author       = {Breine, Bastiaan and Malcolm, Philippe and Van Caekenberghe, Ine and Fiers, Pieter and Frederick, Edward C and De Clercq, Dirk},
  issn         = {0264-0414},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {15},
  pages        = {1556--1564},
  title        = {Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1225970},
  volume       = {35},
  year         = {2017},
}

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