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The use of HeartQoL in patients with coronary heart disease : association with risk factors and European reference values: the EUROASPIRE IV study of the European Society of Cardiology

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Abstract
Background: HeartQoL is a recently developed core health-related quality of life instrument for patients with coronary heart disease. The current study aims to investigate its association with patients’ coronary risk profile and to provide reference values for patients with coronary heart disease across Europe. Design: Analyses are based on the EUROASPIRE IV (EUROpean Action on Secondary and Primary prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) cross-sectional survey. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of coronary heart disease were examined and interviewed six months to three years after their coronary event. The HeartQoL questionnaire was completed by 7261 coronary heart disease patients. Reference values were calculated and the association with the coronary risk profile was assessed. Results: Significantly worse outcomes were observed in higher-risk patient groups. Both metabolic and behavioural risk factors were associated with worse HeartQoL outcomes. Further, the HeartQoL scores decreased as the number of risk factors increased. The mean global reference values in males were 2.27 ± 0.65 (<60 years), 2.30 ± 0.61 (between 60 and 69 years) and 2.19 ± 0.64 (≥70 years). Likewise, in females, the respective global HeartQoL reference values were 2.02 ± 0.67, 2.01 ± 0.66 and 1.83 ± 0.70. The ceiling effect in males was 11.4%, 10.4% and 7.4% for the three age classes respectively, whereas in females the ceiling effect was 5.2%, 3.5% and 1.9%, respectively. Conclusion: HeartQoL scores were associated with patients’ coronary risk profile. The reference values may help other researchers to interpret HeartQoL scores. Further research should focus on the minimal important difference needed to evaluate the effect of therapies and lifestyle changes.
Keywords
coronary heart disease, Health-related quality of life, patient reported outcome, QUALITY-OF-LIFE, ARTERY-DISEASE, MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION, CARDIOVASCULAR RISK, HEALTH-STATUS, QUESTIONNAIRE, OUTCOMES, POPULATION, SMOKING, SEX

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MLA
De Smedt, Delphine et al. “The Use of HeartQoL in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease : Association with Risk Factors and European Reference Values: The EUROASPIRE IV Study of the European Society of Cardiology.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY 23.11 (2016): 1174–1186. Print.
APA
De Smedt, D., Clays, E., Höfer, S., Oldridge, N., Kotseva, K., Maggioni, A. P., Pogosova, N., et al. (2016). The use of HeartQoL in patients with coronary heart disease : association with risk factors and European reference values: the EUROASPIRE IV study of the European Society of Cardiology. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY, 23(11), 1174–1186.
Chicago author-date
De Smedt, Delphine, Els Clays, Stefan Höfer, Neil Oldridge, Kornelia Kotseva, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Nana Pogosova, Maryna Dolzhenko, and Dirk De Bacquer. 2016. “The Use of HeartQoL in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease : Association with Risk Factors and European Reference Values: The EUROASPIRE IV Study of the European Society of Cardiology.” European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 23 (11): 1174–1186.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Smedt, Delphine, Els Clays, Stefan Höfer, Neil Oldridge, Kornelia Kotseva, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Nana Pogosova, Maryna Dolzhenko, and Dirk De Bacquer. 2016. “The Use of HeartQoL in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease : Association with Risk Factors and European Reference Values: The EUROASPIRE IV Study of the European Society of Cardiology.” European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 23 (11): 1174–1186.
Vancouver
1.
De Smedt D, Clays E, Höfer S, Oldridge N, Kotseva K, Maggioni AP, et al. The use of HeartQoL in patients with coronary heart disease : association with risk factors and European reference values: the EUROASPIRE IV study of the European Society of Cardiology. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY. 2016;23(11):1174–86.
IEEE
[1]
D. De Smedt et al., “The use of HeartQoL in patients with coronary heart disease : association with risk factors and European reference values: the EUROASPIRE IV study of the European Society of Cardiology,” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1174–1186, 2016.
@article{8067702,
  abstract     = {Background: HeartQoL is a recently developed core health-related quality of life instrument for patients with coronary heart disease. The current study aims to investigate its association with patients’ coronary risk profile and to provide reference values for patients with coronary heart disease across Europe.
Design: Analyses are based on the EUROASPIRE IV (EUROpean Action on Secondary and Primary prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) cross-sectional survey.
Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of coronary heart disease were examined and interviewed six months to three years after their coronary event. The HeartQoL questionnaire was completed by 7261 coronary heart disease patients. Reference values were calculated and the association with the coronary risk profile was assessed.
Results: Significantly worse outcomes were observed in higher-risk patient groups. Both metabolic and behavioural risk factors were associated with worse HeartQoL outcomes. Further, the HeartQoL scores decreased as the number of risk factors increased. The mean global reference values in males were 2.27 ± 0.65 (<60 years), 2.30 ± 0.61 (between 60 and 69 years) and 2.19 ± 0.64 (≥70 years). Likewise, in females, the respective global HeartQoL reference values were 2.02 ± 0.67, 2.01 ± 0.66 and 1.83 ± 0.70. The ceiling effect in males was 11.4%, 10.4% and 7.4% for the three age classes respectively, whereas in females the ceiling effect was 5.2%, 3.5% and 1.9%, respectively.
Conclusion: HeartQoL scores were associated with patients’ coronary risk profile. The reference values may help other researchers to interpret HeartQoL scores. Further research should focus on the minimal important difference needed to evaluate the effect of therapies and lifestyle changes.},
  author       = {De Smedt, Delphine and Clays, Els and Höfer, Stefan and Oldridge, Neil and Kotseva, Kornelia and Maggioni, Aldo Pietro and Pogosova, Nana and Dolzhenko, Maryna and De Bacquer, Dirk},
  issn         = {2047-4873},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {coronary heart disease,Health-related quality of life,patient reported outcome,QUALITY-OF-LIFE,ARTERY-DISEASE,MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION,CARDIOVASCULAR RISK,HEALTH-STATUS,QUESTIONNAIRE,OUTCOMES,POPULATION,SMOKING,SEX},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1174--1186},
  title        = {The use of HeartQoL in patients with coronary heart disease : association with risk factors and European reference values: the EUROASPIRE IV study of the European Society of Cardiology},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487316631400},
  volume       = {23},
  year         = {2016},
}

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