Ghent University Academic Bibliography

Advanced

The Shandong Peninsula in East Asian maritime history during the Yuan-Ming Transition

Guang Ma (2016)
abstract
The Shandong Peninsula 山東半島 had several valuable natural ports, particularly Dengzhou 登州, Laizhou 莱州 and Mizhou 密州, flourishing from ancient times to the Qing dynasty. These significant ports laid down a solid foundation for Shandong sea transportation, domestic maritime trade, naval activities, and its international exchanges with neighbouring East Asian countries. The case of Shandong maritime history during the Yuan-Ming transition is a good basis for scholars to understand that this transition period was more complex than frequently made out. While it constituted a kind of “rupture” in some aspects, we can observe a gradual transition of developments in other aspects. This transition period definitely had a far-reaching influence not only in Chinese history, but also on the development of the entire East Asian macroregion. However, its important role in maritime history has been neglected and Western research in particular on this topic is still in its infancy. My study examines the maritime trade, sea transportation, and the Wokou 倭寇 “pirate” crisis and its role in the international relations between China, Korea and Japan, and coastal defence system of the Shandong Peninsula during the Yuan-Ming transition. Based on both on a variety of textual sources and archaeological evidence, my thesis puts Shandong into the broader, global historical framework of East Asian history to discuss its change from being just as an important trading area in Yuan to being a significant military base during the Ming dynasty. During the Yuan dynasty, encouraged by the positive maritime trade policy of the government, numerous merchants from Korea, Japan and other coastal regions of China went to Shandong to conduct trade, and several ports of Shandong became flourishing markets. In order to support the capital Dadu 大都, the Yuan government had had to transport a large quantity of grains from south China mainly by sea, and Shandong played a significant role in this sea route. At the very beginning of the Ming dynasty, however, the Ming government suddenly changed the former dynasty’s maritime policy and strictly prohibited people from conducting maritime trade. Under the negative influence of this policy, Shandong domestic and international maritime trade declined sharply, and almost no businessmen visited these ports any more. However, several things happening during the Yuan dynasty still continued in Ming times. For example, the official sea transportation continued from Yuan to Ming, and Wokou, who began to harass the coastal regions of China during the Yuan dynasty, continued to raid China, and their raiding activities became more frequent and fiercer during the early Ming dynasty. Some things changed from Yuan to Ming, but the changes were gradual, rather than a sudden rupture. For example, the coastal defence system of Shandong took several decades to complete, and it was a long-term, process. Therefore, I state that, on the one hand, there were obvious ruptures of maritime policy and maritime trade between the Yuan and Ming dynasties, but on the other hand some things, such as official sea transportation and the Wokou problem, persisted from Yuan to Ming times. Although the function of the Shandong Peninsula moved from it being primarily an important commercial entrepôt during the Yuan dynasty, to being a crucial military base during Ming times, it is worth mentioning that it was a process of several decades, rather than a sudden rupture. Through my case study of Shandong, which played a significant role in the development of the East Asian maritime Silk Road in China, I hope my research may compensate for past neglect of the topic by shedding more light on Shandong maritime history during the Yuan-Ming transition, and fill in the blanks. My purpose is to help scholars better understand the ruptures and gradual changes that took place during the Yuan-Ming transition in a larger geopolitical and global context of East Asian history.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
promoter
UGent and UGent
organization
year
type
dissertation
publication status
published
subject
pages
XVI, 300 pages
publisher
Ghent University. Faculty of Arts and Philosophy
place of publication
Ghent, Belgium
defense date
2016-10-17 00:00
project
China’s Maritime Commerce and Naval Activities in Northeast Asia During the “Yuan-Ming Rupture”
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
D1
copyright statement
I have retained and own the full copyright for this publication
id
8060438
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-8060438
date created
2016-09-05 13:59:03
date last changed
2017-01-16 10:52:13
@phdthesis{8060438,
  abstract     = {The Shandong Peninsula \unmatched{5c71}\unmatched{6771}\unmatched{534a}\unmatched{5cf6} had several valuable natural ports, particularly Dengzhou \unmatched{767b}\unmatched{5dde}, Laizhou \unmatched{83b1}\unmatched{5dde} and Mizhou \unmatched{5bc6}\unmatched{5dde}, flourishing from ancient times to the Qing dynasty. These significant ports laid down a solid foundation for Shandong sea transportation, domestic maritime trade, naval activities, and its international exchanges with neighbouring East Asian countries. The case of Shandong maritime history during the Yuan-Ming transition is a good basis for scholars to understand that this transition period was more complex than frequently made out. While it constituted a kind of {\textquotedblleft}rupture{\textquotedblright} in some aspects, we can observe a gradual transition of developments in other aspects. This transition period definitely had a far-reaching influence not only in Chinese history, but also on the development of the entire East Asian macroregion. However, its important role in maritime history has been neglected and Western research in particular on this topic is still in its infancy.
My study examines the maritime trade, sea transportation, and the Wokou \unmatched{502d}\unmatched{5bc7} {\textquotedblleft}pirate{\textquotedblright} crisis and its role in the international relations between China, Korea and Japan, and coastal defence system of the Shandong Peninsula during the Yuan-Ming transition. Based on both on a variety of textual sources and archaeological evidence, my thesis puts Shandong into the broader, global historical framework of East Asian history to discuss its change from being just as an important trading area in Yuan to being a significant military base during the Ming dynasty.
During the Yuan dynasty, encouraged by the positive maritime trade policy of the government, numerous merchants from Korea, Japan and other coastal regions of China went to Shandong to conduct trade, and several ports of Shandong became flourishing markets. In order to support the capital Dadu \unmatched{5927}\unmatched{90fd}, the Yuan government had had to transport a large quantity of grains from south China mainly by sea, and Shandong played a significant role in this sea route. At the very beginning of the Ming dynasty, however, the Ming government suddenly changed the former dynasty{\textquoteright}s maritime policy and strictly prohibited people from conducting maritime trade. Under the negative influence of this policy, Shandong domestic and international maritime trade declined sharply, and almost no businessmen visited these ports any more.
However, several things happening during the Yuan dynasty still continued in Ming times. For example, the official sea transportation continued from Yuan to Ming, and Wokou, who began to harass the coastal regions of China during the Yuan dynasty, continued to raid China, and their raiding activities became more frequent and fiercer during the early Ming dynasty. Some things changed from Yuan to Ming, but the changes were gradual, rather than a sudden rupture. For example, the coastal defence system of Shandong took several decades to complete, and it was a long-term, process.
Therefore, I state that, on the one hand, there were obvious ruptures of maritime policy and maritime trade between the Yuan and Ming dynasties, but on the other hand some things, such as official sea transportation and the Wokou problem, persisted from Yuan to Ming times. Although the function of the Shandong Peninsula moved from it being primarily an important commercial entrep{\^o}t during the Yuan dynasty, to being a crucial military base during Ming times, it is worth mentioning that it was a process of several decades, rather than a sudden rupture.
Through my case study of Shandong, which played a significant role in the development of the East Asian maritime Silk Road in China, I hope my research may compensate for past neglect of the topic by shedding more light on Shandong maritime history during the Yuan-Ming transition, and fill in the blanks. My purpose is to help scholars better understand the ruptures and gradual changes that took place during the Yuan-Ming transition in a larger geopolitical and global context of East Asian history.},
  author       = {Ma, Guang},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {XVI, 300},
  publisher    = {Ghent University. Faculty of Arts and Philosophy},
  school       = {Ghent University},
  title        = {The Shandong Peninsula in East Asian maritime history during the Yuan-Ming Transition},
  year         = {2016},
}

Chicago
Ma, Guang. 2016. “The Shandong Peninsula in East Asian Maritime History During the Yuan-Ming Transition”. Ghent, Belgium: Ghent University. Faculty of Arts and Philosophy.
APA
Ma, G. (2016). The Shandong Peninsula in East Asian maritime history during the Yuan-Ming Transition. Ghent University. Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, Ghent, Belgium.
Vancouver
1.
Ma G. The Shandong Peninsula in East Asian maritime history during the Yuan-Ming Transition. [Ghent, Belgium]: Ghent University. Faculty of Arts and Philosophy; 2016.
MLA
Ma, Guang. “The Shandong Peninsula in East Asian Maritime History During the Yuan-Ming Transition.” 2016 : n. pag. Print.