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Reference values for local arterial stiffness, part A: carotid artery

(2015) JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION. 33(10). p.1981-1996
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Organization
Abstract
Objective: Non-invasive measures of common carotid artery properties, such as diameter and distension, and pulse pressure, have been widely used to determine carotid artery distensibility coefficient - a measure of carotid stiffness (stiffness approximate to 1/distensibility coefficient). Carotid stiffness has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may therefore be a useful intermediate marker for CVD. We aimed to establish age and sex-specific reference intervals of carotid stiffness. Methods: We combined data on 22708 individuals (age range 15-99 years, 54% men) from 24 research centres worldwide. Individuals without CVD and established cardiovascular risk factors constituted a healthy sub-population (n=3601, 48% men) and were used to establish sex-specific equations for percentiles of carotid distensibility coefficient across age. Results: In the sub-population without CVD and treatment (n=12906, 52% men), carotid distensibility coefficient Z-scores based on these percentile equations were independently and negatively associated, in men and women, respectively, with diabetes {-0.28 [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.41; -0.15] and -0.27 (-0.43; -0.12)}, mean arterial pressure [-0.26 (-0.29; -0.24) and -0.32 (-0.35; -0.29)], total-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio [-0.05 (-0.09; -0.02) and -0.05 (-0.11; 0.01)] and BMI [-0.06 (-0.09; -0.04) and -0.05 (-0.08; -0.02)], whereas these were positively associated with smoking [0.30 (0.24; 0.36) and 0.24 (0.18; 0.31)]. Conclusions: We estimated age and sex-specific percentiles of carotid stiffness in a healthy population and assessed the association between cardiovascular risk factors and carotid distensibility coefficient Z-scores, which enables comparison of carotid stiffness values between (patient) groups with different cardiovascular risk profiles, helping interpretation of such measures.
Keywords
REFERENCE INTERVALS, SHORT-TERM, BLOOD-PRESSURE, FEMORAL STIFFNESS, PULSE-WAVE VELOCITY, CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE, CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS, ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY, INTIMA-MEDIA THICKNESS, reference intervals, ageing, arterial stiffness, risk factors, carotid artery, DISTENSIBILITY

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Chicago
Engelen, Lian, Jelle Bossuyt, Isabel Ferreira, Lucas Van Bortel, Koen D Reesink, Patrick Segers, Coen D Stehouwer, Stéphane Laurent, and Pierre Boutouyrie. 2015. “Reference Values for Local Arterial Stiffness, Part A: Carotid Artery.” Journal of Hypertension 33 (10): 1981–1996.
APA
Engelen, Lian, Bossuyt, J., Ferreira, I., Van Bortel, L., Reesink, K. D., Segers, P., Stehouwer, C. D., et al. (2015). Reference values for local arterial stiffness, part A: carotid artery. JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION, 33(10), 1981–1996.
Vancouver
1.
Engelen L, Bossuyt J, Ferreira I, Van Bortel L, Reesink KD, Segers P, et al. Reference values for local arterial stiffness, part A: carotid artery. JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION. 2015;33(10):1981–96.
MLA
Engelen, Lian, Jelle Bossuyt, Isabel Ferreira, et al. “Reference Values for Local Arterial Stiffness, Part A: Carotid Artery.” JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION 33.10 (2015): 1981–1996. Print.
@article{8057832,
  abstract     = {Objective: Non-invasive measures of common carotid artery properties, such as diameter and distension, and pulse pressure, have been widely used to determine carotid artery distensibility coefficient - a measure of carotid stiffness (stiffness approximate to 1/distensibility coefficient). Carotid stiffness has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may therefore be a useful intermediate marker for CVD. We aimed to establish age and sex-specific reference intervals of carotid stiffness.
Methods: We combined data on 22708 individuals (age range 15-99 years, 54\% men) from 24 research centres worldwide. Individuals without CVD and established cardiovascular risk factors constituted a healthy sub-population (n=3601, 48\% men) and were used to establish sex-specific equations for percentiles of carotid distensibility coefficient across age.
Results: In the sub-population without CVD and treatment (n=12906, 52\% men), carotid distensibility coefficient Z-scores based on these percentile equations were independently and negatively associated, in men and women, respectively, with diabetes \{-0.28 [95\% confidence interval (CI) -0.41; -0.15] and -0.27 (-0.43; -0.12)\}, mean arterial pressure [-0.26 (-0.29; -0.24) and -0.32 (-0.35; -0.29)], total-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio [-0.05 (-0.09; -0.02) and -0.05 (-0.11; 0.01)] and BMI [-0.06 (-0.09; -0.04) and -0.05 (-0.08; -0.02)], whereas these were positively associated with smoking [0.30 (0.24; 0.36) and 0.24 (0.18; 0.31)].
Conclusions: We estimated age and sex-specific percentiles of carotid stiffness in a healthy population and assessed the association between cardiovascular risk factors and carotid distensibility coefficient Z-scores, which enables comparison of carotid stiffness values between (patient) groups with different cardiovascular risk profiles, helping interpretation of such measures.},
  author       = {Engelen, Lian and Bossuyt, Jelle and Ferreira, Isabel and Van Bortel, Lucas and Reesink, Koen D and Segers, Patrick and Stehouwer, Coen D and Laurent, St{\'e}phane and Boutouyrie, Pierre},
  issn         = {0263-6352},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {1981--1996},
  title        = {Reference values for local arterial stiffness, part A: carotid artery},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000654},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2015},
}

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