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In situ assessment of the stone conservation state by its water absorbing behaviour : a hands-on methodology

Delphine Vandevoorde (UGent) , Tim De Kock (UGent) and Veerle Cnudde (UGent)
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Abstract
This paper describes the use of the water absorbing behaviour (WAB) for assessment of the conservation state of stone in situ. A test methodology, consisting of a combination of techniques for in situ measurement of the WAB, was applied in a case study on Lede stone, a sandy limestone, used in a medieval facade in Ghent, Belgium. The methods used were the contact sponge method (CSM), the Karsten tube (KT) and the droplet method (DM). Additionally, the residual hardness of the stone was measured by Schmidt hammer (SH). After careful selection of representative measuring points, a qualitative analysis of the stone’s condition could be made, based on its WAB, residual hardness, reference data from laboratory experiments and thorough visual observations. From this analysis it could be concluded that CSM, KT and SH generated coherent and compatible results; that DM could indicate superficial alterations which were not necessarily representative for the subsuperficial WAB and that this methodology could give an insight on the conservation state, beyond visual observations, when combined with reference data.
Keywords
contact sponge method, Karsten tube, porous stone materials, water absorbing behaviour, droplet method, capillary uptake

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MLA
Vandevoorde, Delphine, Tim De Kock, and Veerle Cnudde. “In Situ Assessment of the Stone Conservation State by Its Water Absorbing Behaviour : a Hands-on Methodology.” Science and Art: a Future for Stone : Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone. Ed. John J Hughes & Torsten Howind. Paisley, Scotland, UK: University of the West of Scotland, 2016. 483–490. Print.
APA
Vandevoorde, D., De Kock, T., & Cnudde, V. (2016). In situ assessment of the stone conservation state by its water absorbing behaviour : a hands-on methodology. In J. J. Hughes & T. Howind (Eds.), Science and art: a future for stone : proceedings of the 13th international congress on the deterioration and conservation of stone (pp. 483–490). Presented at the 13th International congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Paisley, Scotland, UK: University of the West of Scotland.
Chicago author-date
Vandevoorde, Delphine, Tim De Kock, and Veerle Cnudde. 2016. “In Situ Assessment of the Stone Conservation State by Its Water Absorbing Behaviour : a Hands-on Methodology.” In Science and Art: a Future for Stone : Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. John J Hughes and Torsten Howind, 483–490. Paisley, Scotland, UK: University of the West of Scotland.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vandevoorde, Delphine, Tim De Kock, and Veerle Cnudde. 2016. “In Situ Assessment of the Stone Conservation State by Its Water Absorbing Behaviour : a Hands-on Methodology.” In Science and Art: a Future for Stone : Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. John J Hughes and Torsten Howind, 483–490. Paisley, Scotland, UK: University of the West of Scotland.
Vancouver
1.
Vandevoorde D, De Kock T, Cnudde V. In situ assessment of the stone conservation state by its water absorbing behaviour : a hands-on methodology. In: Hughes JJ, Howind T, editors. Science and art: a future for stone : proceedings of the 13th international congress on the deterioration and conservation of stone. Paisley, Scotland, UK: University of the West of Scotland; 2016. p. 483–90.
IEEE
[1]
D. Vandevoorde, T. De Kock, and V. Cnudde, “In situ assessment of the stone conservation state by its water absorbing behaviour : a hands-on methodology,” in Science and art: a future for stone : proceedings of the 13th international congress on the deterioration and conservation of stone, Paisley, Scotland, UK, 2016, pp. 483–490.
@inproceedings{8056255,
  abstract     = {This paper describes the use of the water absorbing behaviour (WAB) for assessment of the conservation state of stone in situ. A test methodology, consisting of a combination of techniques for in situ measurement of the WAB, was applied in a case study on Lede stone, a sandy limestone, used in a medieval facade in Ghent, Belgium. The methods used were the contact sponge method (CSM), the Karsten tube (KT) and the droplet method (DM). Additionally, the residual hardness of the stone was measured by Schmidt hammer (SH). After careful selection of representative measuring points, a qualitative analysis of the stone’s condition could be made, based on its WAB, residual hardness, reference data from laboratory experiments and thorough visual observations. From this analysis it could be concluded that CSM, KT and SH generated coherent and compatible results; that DM could indicate superficial alterations which were not necessarily representative for the subsuperficial WAB and that this methodology could give an insight on the conservation state, beyond visual observations, when combined with reference data.},
  author       = {Vandevoorde, Delphine and De Kock, Tim and Cnudde, Veerle},
  booktitle    = {Science and art: a future for stone : proceedings of the 13th international congress on the deterioration and conservation of stone},
  editor       = {Hughes, John J and Howind, Torsten},
  isbn         = {9781903978597},
  keywords     = {contact sponge method,Karsten tube,porous stone materials,water absorbing behaviour,droplet method,capillary uptake},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Paisley, Scotland, UK},
  pages        = {483--490},
  publisher    = {University of the West of Scotland},
  title        = {In situ assessment of the stone conservation state by its water absorbing behaviour : a hands-on methodology},
  year         = {2016},
}