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A pilot study of the relations within which hearing voices participates : towards a functional distinction between voice hearers and controls

(2016) PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD. 66(4). p.611-626
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Abstract
The current research used the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a preliminary step toward bringing a broad, functional approach to understanding psychosis, by focusing on the specific phenomenon of auditory hallucinations of voices and sounds (often referred to as hearing voices). On this path, we created a taxonomy of some critical features of voice hearing based on the existing literature (i.e., perceived normality of voices, appraisals of self and other people hearing voices, and fear of voices) as a focus of our experimental manipulations. It was our hope that our findings would add to the broad literature that has used explicit measures to study these phenomena, and that the use of an 'implicit' measure might assist toward a functional analytic understanding. Three pilot studies were conducted to assess the relations within which hearing voices participates in non-clinical voice hearers (i.e., individuals who hear voices but have no clinical diagnosis or distress) and compared to non-voice hearing control participants. The IRAP effects demonstrated both positive and negative relational responses across the three studies, and these effects varied according to explicit levels of delusional ideation. Furthermore, these IRAP effects also predicted explicit aspects of voice hearing and well-being. The current set of pilot studies demonstrate the utility and precision of the IRAP in this domain, and we propose that this type of experimental analysis may hold potential for future bottom-up functional analyses of voice hearing.
Keywords
AUDITORY VERBAL HALLUCINATIONS, ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE IRAP, RATING-SCALES PSYRATS, GENERAL-POPULATION, VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS, MENTAL-HEALTH, SCHIZOPHRENIA, ACCEPTANCE, PSYCHOSIS, METAANALYSIS

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Citation

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Chicago
McEnteggart, Ciara, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Jos Egger, and Patrick Michael Dermot Barnes-Holmes. 2016. “A Pilot Study of the Relations Within Which Hearing Voices Participates : Towards a Functional Distinction Between Voice Hearers and Controls.” Psychological Record 66 (4): 611–626.
APA
McEnteggart, C., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Egger, J., & Barnes-Holmes, P. M. D. (2016). A pilot study of the relations within which hearing voices participates : towards a functional distinction between voice hearers and controls. PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD, 66(4), 611–626.
Vancouver
1.
McEnteggart C, Barnes-Holmes Y, Egger J, Barnes-Holmes PMD. A pilot study of the relations within which hearing voices participates : towards a functional distinction between voice hearers and controls. PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD. 2016;66(4):611–26.
MLA
McEnteggart, Ciara et al. “A Pilot Study of the Relations Within Which Hearing Voices Participates : Towards a Functional Distinction Between Voice Hearers and Controls.” PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD 66.4 (2016): 611–626. Print.
@article{8054631,
  abstract     = {The current research used the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a preliminary step toward bringing a broad, functional approach to understanding psychosis, by focusing on the specific phenomenon of auditory hallucinations of voices and sounds (often referred to as hearing voices). On this path, we created a taxonomy of some critical features of voice hearing based on the existing literature (i.e., perceived normality of voices, appraisals of self and other people hearing voices, and fear of voices) as a focus of our experimental manipulations. It was our hope that our findings would add to the broad literature that has used explicit measures to study these phenomena, and that the use of an 'implicit' measure might assist toward a functional analytic understanding. Three pilot studies were conducted to assess the relations within which hearing voices participates in non-clinical voice hearers (i.e., individuals who hear voices but have no clinical diagnosis or distress) and compared to non-voice hearing control participants. The IRAP effects demonstrated both positive and negative relational responses across the three studies, and these effects varied according to explicit levels of delusional ideation. Furthermore, these IRAP effects also predicted explicit aspects of voice hearing and well-being. The current set of pilot studies demonstrate the utility and precision of the IRAP in this domain, and we propose that this type of experimental analysis may hold potential for future bottom-up functional analyses of voice hearing.},
  author       = {McEnteggart, Ciara and Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne and Egger, Jos and Barnes-Holmes, Patrick Michael Dermot},
  issn         = {0033-2933},
  journal      = {PSYCHOLOGICAL RECORD},
  keywords     = {AUDITORY VERBAL HALLUCINATIONS,ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE IRAP,RATING-SCALES PSYRATS,GENERAL-POPULATION,VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS,MENTAL-HEALTH,SCHIZOPHRENIA,ACCEPTANCE,PSYCHOSIS,METAANALYSIS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {611--626},
  title        = {A pilot study of the relations within which hearing voices participates : towards a functional distinction between voice hearers and controls},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40732-016-0196-x},
  volume       = {66},
  year         = {2016},
}

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