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Improving total saccharification yield of Arabidopsis plants by vessel-specific complementation of caffeoyl shikimate esterase (cse) mutants

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Biotechnology for a sustainable economy (Bio-Economy)
Abstract
Background: Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) was recently characterized as an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. The cse-2 loss-of-function mutant shows a typical phenotype of lignin-deficient mutants, including collapsed vessels, reduced lignin content, and lignin compositional shift, in addition to a fourfold increase in cellulose-to-glucose conversion when compared to the wild type. However, this mutant exhibits a substantial developmental arrest, which might outweigh the gains in fermentable sugar yield. To restore its normal growth and further improve its saccharification yield, we investigated a possible cause for the yield penalty of the cse-2 mutant. Furthermore, we evaluated whether CSE expression is under the same multi-leveled transcriptional regulatory network as other lignin biosynthetic genes and analyzed the transcriptional responses of the phenylpropanoid pathway upon disruption of CSE. Results: Transactivation analysis demonstrated that only second-level MYB master switches (MYB46 and MYB83) and lignin-specific activators (MYB63 and MYB85), but not top-level NAC master switches or other downstream transcription factors, effectively activate the CSE promoter in our protoplast-based system. The cse-2 mutant exhibited transcriptional repression of genes upstream of CSE, while downstream genes were mainly unaffected, indicating transcriptional feedback of CSE loss-of-function on monolignol biosynthetic genes. In addition, we found that the expression of CSE under the control of the vessel-specific VND7 promoter in the cse-2 background restored the vasculature integrity resulting in improved growth parameters, while the overall lignin content remained relatively low. Thus, by restoring the vascular integrity and biomass parameters of cse-2, we further improved glucose release per plant without pretreatment, with an increase of up to 36 % compared to the cse-2 mutant and up to 154 % compared to the wild type. Conclusions: Our results contribute to a better understanding of how the expression of CSE is regulated by secondary wall-associated transcription factors and how the expression of lignin genes is affected upon CSE loss-of-function in Arabidopsis. Moreover, we found evidence that vasculature collapse is underlying the yield penalty found in the cse-2 mutant. Through a vessel-specific complementation approach, vasculature morphology and final stem weight were restored, leading to an even higher total glucose release per plant.
Keywords
Vessel-specific complementation, Secondary cell wall, LIGNIN BIOSYNTHESIS PERTURBATIONS, TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS, DOWN-REGULATION, PHENYLPROPANOID METABOLISM, REDUCES RECALCITRANCE, BIOFUEL PRODUCTION, WALL BIOSYNTHESIS, GENE ENCODES, EXPRESSION, LIGNIFICATION, Saccharification, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), Lignin, Genetic engineering

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MLA
Vargas dos Santos Ferreira, Livia et al. “Improving Total Saccharification Yield of Arabidopsis Plants by Vessel-specific Complementation of Caffeoyl Shikimate Esterase (cse) Mutants.” BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR BIOFUELS 9 (2016): n. pag. Print.
APA
Vargas dos Santos Ferreira, L., Cesarino, I., Vanholme, R., Voorend, W., de Lyra Soriano Saleme, M., Morreel, K., & Boerjan, W. (2016). Improving total saccharification yield of Arabidopsis plants by vessel-specific complementation of caffeoyl shikimate esterase (cse) mutants. BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR BIOFUELS, 9.
Chicago author-date
Vargas dos Santos Ferreira, Livia, Igor Cesarino, Ruben Vanholme, Wannes Voorend, Marina de Lyra Soriano Saleme, Kris Morreel, and Wout Boerjan. 2016. “Improving Total Saccharification Yield of Arabidopsis Plants by Vessel-specific Complementation of Caffeoyl Shikimate Esterase (cse) Mutants.” Biotechnology for Biofuels 9.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vargas dos Santos Ferreira, Livia, Igor Cesarino, Ruben Vanholme, Wannes Voorend, Marina de Lyra Soriano Saleme, Kris Morreel, and Wout Boerjan. 2016. “Improving Total Saccharification Yield of Arabidopsis Plants by Vessel-specific Complementation of Caffeoyl Shikimate Esterase (cse) Mutants.” Biotechnology for Biofuels 9.
Vancouver
1.
Vargas dos Santos Ferreira L, Cesarino I, Vanholme R, Voorend W, de Lyra Soriano Saleme M, Morreel K, et al. Improving total saccharification yield of Arabidopsis plants by vessel-specific complementation of caffeoyl shikimate esterase (cse) mutants. BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR BIOFUELS. 2016;9.
IEEE
[1]
L. Vargas dos Santos Ferreira et al., “Improving total saccharification yield of Arabidopsis plants by vessel-specific complementation of caffeoyl shikimate esterase (cse) mutants,” BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR BIOFUELS, vol. 9, 2016.
@article{8053792,
  abstract     = {Background: Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) was recently characterized as an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. The cse-2 loss-of-function mutant shows a typical phenotype of lignin-deficient mutants, including collapsed vessels, reduced lignin content, and lignin compositional shift, in addition to a fourfold increase in cellulose-to-glucose conversion when compared to the wild type. However, this mutant exhibits a substantial developmental arrest, which might outweigh the gains in fermentable sugar yield. To restore its normal growth and further improve its saccharification yield, we investigated a possible cause for the yield penalty of the cse-2 mutant. Furthermore, we evaluated whether CSE expression is under the same multi-leveled transcriptional regulatory network as other lignin biosynthetic genes and analyzed the transcriptional responses of the phenylpropanoid pathway upon disruption of CSE. 
Results: Transactivation analysis demonstrated that only second-level MYB master switches (MYB46 and MYB83) and lignin-specific activators (MYB63 and MYB85), but not top-level NAC master switches or other downstream transcription factors, effectively activate the CSE promoter in our protoplast-based system. The cse-2 mutant exhibited transcriptional repression of genes upstream of CSE, while downstream genes were mainly unaffected, indicating transcriptional feedback of CSE loss-of-function on monolignol biosynthetic genes. In addition, we found that the expression of CSE under the control of the vessel-specific VND7 promoter in the cse-2 background restored the vasculature integrity resulting in improved growth parameters, while the overall lignin content remained relatively low. Thus, by restoring the vascular integrity and biomass parameters of cse-2, we further improved glucose release per plant without pretreatment, with an increase of up to 36 % compared to the cse-2 mutant and up to 154 % compared to the wild type. 
Conclusions: Our results contribute to a better understanding of how the expression of CSE is regulated by secondary wall-associated transcription factors and how the expression of lignin genes is affected upon CSE loss-of-function in Arabidopsis. Moreover, we found evidence that vasculature collapse is underlying the yield penalty found in the cse-2 mutant. Through a vessel-specific complementation approach, vasculature morphology and final stem weight were restored, leading to an even higher total glucose release per plant.},
  articleno    = {139},
  author       = {Vargas dos Santos Ferreira, Livia and Cesarino, Igor and Vanholme, Ruben and Voorend, Wannes and de Lyra Soriano Saleme, Marina and Morreel, Kris and Boerjan, Wout},
  issn         = {1754-6834},
  journal      = {BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR BIOFUELS},
  keywords     = {Vessel-specific complementation,Secondary cell wall,LIGNIN BIOSYNTHESIS PERTURBATIONS,TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS,DOWN-REGULATION,PHENYLPROPANOID METABOLISM,REDUCES RECALCITRANCE,BIOFUEL PRODUCTION,WALL BIOSYNTHESIS,GENE ENCODES,EXPRESSION,LIGNIFICATION,Saccharification,Arabidopsis thaliana,Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE),Lignin,Genetic engineering},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {Improving total saccharification yield of Arabidopsis plants by vessel-specific complementation of caffeoyl shikimate esterase (cse) mutants},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-016-0551-9},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2016},
}

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