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Adaptation and standardization of a Western tool for assessing child development in non-Western low-income context

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Abstract
Background: Due to lack of culturally relevant assessment tools, little is known about children’s developmental profiles in low income settings such as Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to adapt and standardize the Denver II for assessing child development in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia. Methods: Culture-specific test items in Denver II were modified. After translation into two local languages, all test items were piloted and fine-tuned. Using 1597 healthy children 4 days to 70.6 months of age, the 25, 50, 75 and 90 % passing ages were determined for each test item as milestones. Milestones attainment on the adapted version and the Denver II were compared on the 90 % passing age. Reliability of the adapted tool was examined. Results: A total of 36 (28.8 %) test items, mostly from personal social domain, were adapted. Milestones attainment ages on the two versions differed significantly on 42 (34 %) test items. The adapted tool has an excellent inter-rater on 123 (98 %) items and substantial to excellent test-retest reliability on 119 (91 %) items. Conclusions: A Western developmental assessment tool can be adapted reliably for use in low-income settings. Age differences in attaining milestones indicate a correct estimation of child development requires a population-specific standard.
Keywords
Child development, Adaptation, Denver II-Jimma, Developmental assessment tool, SCREENING-TEST, MENTAL-DEVELOPMENT, INFANT DEVELOPMENT, HIV-INFECTION, DENVER-II, MALNUTRITION, TODDLERS, OUTCOMES, GROWTH, MOTOR

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Chicago
Gemechu Abessa, Teklu, Berhanu Nigussie Worku, Mekitie Wondafrash Kibebew, Jan Valy, Johan Lemmens, Herbert Thijs, Wondwosen Kasahun Yime, Patrick Kolsteren, and Marita Granitzer. 2016. “Adaptation and Standardization of a Western Tool for Assessing Child Development in non-Western Low-income Context.” Bmc Public Health 16.
APA
Gemechu Abessa, T., Nigussie Worku, B., Wondafrash Kibebew, M., Valy, J., Lemmens, J., Thijs, H., Kasahun Yime, W., et al. (2016). Adaptation and standardization of a Western tool for assessing child development in non-Western low-income context. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 16.
Vancouver
1.
Gemechu Abessa T, Nigussie Worku B, Wondafrash Kibebew M, Valy J, Lemmens J, Thijs H, et al. Adaptation and standardization of a Western tool for assessing child development in non-Western low-income context. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH. 2016;16.
MLA
Gemechu Abessa, Teklu, Berhanu Nigussie Worku, Mekitie Wondafrash Kibebew, et al. “Adaptation and Standardization of a Western Tool for Assessing Child Development in non-Western Low-income Context.” BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 16 (2016): n. pag. Print.
@article{8040698,
  abstract     = {Background: Due to lack of culturally relevant assessment tools, little is known about children{\textquoteright}s developmental profiles in low income settings such as Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to adapt and standardize the Denver II for assessing child development in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia.
Methods: Culture-specific test items in Denver II were modified. After translation into two local languages, all test items were piloted and fine-tuned. Using 1597 healthy children 4 days to 70.6 months of age, the 25, 50, 75 and 90 \% passing ages were determined for each test item as milestones. Milestones attainment on the adapted version and the Denver II were compared on the 90 \% passing age. Reliability of the adapted tool was examined.
Results: A total of 36 (28.8 \%) test items, mostly from personal social domain, were adapted. Milestones attainment ages on the two versions differed significantly on 42 (34 \%) test items. The adapted tool has an excellent inter-rater on 123 (98 \%) items and substantial to excellent test-retest reliability on 119 (91 \%) items.
Conclusions: A Western developmental assessment tool can be adapted reliably for use in low-income settings. Age differences in attaining milestones indicate a correct estimation of child development requires a population-specific standard.},
  articleno    = {652},
  author       = {Gemechu Abessa, Teklu and Nigussie Worku, Berhanu and Wondafrash Kibebew, Mekitie and Valy, Jan and Lemmens, Johan and Thijs, Herbert and Kasahun Yime, Wondwosen and Kolsteren, Patrick and Granitzer, Marita},
  issn         = {1471-2458},
  journal      = {BMC PUBLIC HEALTH},
  keyword      = {Child development,Adaptation,Denver II-Jimma,Developmental assessment tool,SCREENING-TEST,MENTAL-DEVELOPMENT,INFANT DEVELOPMENT,HIV-INFECTION,DENVER-II,MALNUTRITION,TODDLERS,OUTCOMES,GROWTH,MOTOR},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {13},
  title        = {Adaptation and standardization of a Western tool for assessing child development in non-Western low-income context},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3288-2},
  volume       = {16},
  year         = {2016},
}

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