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Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of the esophagus in the horse

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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to describe the radiographic and ultrasonographic appearance of the esophagus of ten healthy horses. Contrast radiography showed variations in the long-axis shape of the esophagus at the thoracic inlet. Administration of a large volume contrast medium by intubation showed stasis of contrast material for several minutes in two of the ten horses. The wall thickness of the non-distended esophagus on ultrasound was 2.6 +/- 0.3 mm with significant differences depending on the location. Distention of the esophagus by intubation or by a bolus of water or concentrate resulted in a decrease in wall thickness and it facilitated measuring with less variation. Stasis at the thoracic inlet was seen in five of the ten horses, when a water bolus was administered. Ultrasonographic evaluation of 100g spontaneously swallowed commercial concentrate was better than fluid (water bolus or 2.5mL/kg contrast medium) administration via intubation to assess esophageal motility at the thoracic inlet. Stasis seen at the thoracic inlet after bolus administration by intubation should not be regarded as an abnormal finding, and swallowing, with the subsequent peristaltic wave, has a positive influence on the bolus passage time.
Keywords
EQUINE ESOPHAGUS, MANAGEMENT, OBSTRUCTION CHOKE, CONTRAST RADIOGRAPHY, DIVERTICULUM, DETOMIDINE, DIAGNOSIS, OXYTOCIN, PRESSURE, SWALLOW

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Citation

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MLA
Palmers, K et al. “Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Esophagus in the Horse.” VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT 85.2 (2016): 78–86. Print.
APA
Palmers, K., Van der Vekens, E., Paulussen, E., Picavet, M., Pardon, B., & van Loon, G. (2016). Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of the esophagus in the horse. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT, 85(2), 78–86.
Chicago author-date
Palmers, K, Elke Van der Vekens, Ellen Paulussen, MT Picavet, Bart Pardon, and Gunther van Loon. 2016. “Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Esophagus in the Horse.” Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 85 (2): 78–86.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Palmers, K, Elke Van der Vekens, Ellen Paulussen, MT Picavet, Bart Pardon, and Gunther van Loon. 2016. “Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Esophagus in the Horse.” Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 85 (2): 78–86.
Vancouver
1.
Palmers K, Van der Vekens E, Paulussen E, Picavet M, Pardon B, van Loon G. Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of the esophagus in the horse. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT. 2016;85(2):78–86.
IEEE
[1]
K. Palmers, E. Van der Vekens, E. Paulussen, M. Picavet, B. Pardon, and G. van Loon, “Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of the esophagus in the horse,” VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 78–86, 2016.
@article{8039934,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this study was to describe the radiographic and ultrasonographic appearance of the esophagus of ten healthy horses. Contrast radiography showed variations in the long-axis shape of the esophagus at the thoracic inlet. Administration of a large volume contrast medium by intubation showed stasis of contrast material for several minutes in two of the ten horses. The wall thickness of the non-distended esophagus on ultrasound was 2.6 +/- 0.3 mm with significant differences depending on the location. Distention of the esophagus by intubation or by a bolus of water or concentrate resulted in a decrease in wall thickness and it facilitated measuring with less variation. Stasis at the thoracic inlet was seen in five of the ten horses, when a water bolus was administered. Ultrasonographic evaluation of 100g spontaneously swallowed commercial concentrate was better than fluid (water bolus or 2.5mL/kg contrast medium) administration via intubation to assess esophageal motility at the thoracic inlet. Stasis seen at the thoracic inlet after bolus administration by intubation should not be regarded as an abnormal finding, and swallowing, with the subsequent peristaltic wave, has a positive influence on the bolus passage time.},
  author       = {Palmers, K and Van der Vekens, Elke and Paulussen, Ellen and Picavet, MT and Pardon, Bart and van Loon, Gunther},
  issn         = {0303-9021},
  journal      = {VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT},
  keywords     = {EQUINE ESOPHAGUS,MANAGEMENT,OBSTRUCTION CHOKE,CONTRAST RADIOGRAPHY,DIVERTICULUM,DETOMIDINE,DIAGNOSIS,OXYTOCIN,PRESSURE,SWALLOW},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {78--86},
  title        = {Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of the esophagus in the horse},
  url          = {http://vdt.ugent.be/sites/default/files/art4%20in%20English.pdf},
  volume       = {85},
  year         = {2016},
}

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