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Influence of Brazilian geographic region and organic agriculture on the composition and crystallization properties of cocoa butter

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Abstract
Cocoa butter (CB) is the most important ingredient in chocolate and represents the biggest share in the continuous phase of this product. The accurate composition of CB depends, among other factors, on the genetic characteristics of the cocoa tree, its agricultural handling and the farming region's climate. The influences of the cocoa-producing region in Brazil and the agricultural cultivation method on the composition and crystallization properties of CB are presented in this article. Raw CB was extracted from fruits cultivated in six main Brazilian states using two agricultural methods, organic and conventional. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acids, triacylglycerol composition, solid fat content, consistency, melting behavior and isothermal crystallization. The wide range of cocoa-producing regions in Brazil causes the distinct characteristics of the chemical composition and crystallization behavior of the CB, attributes that affect the quality of products using this raw material. Differences in consistency, hardness and crystallization parameters, among others, were observed. The results showed the great potential of using Brazilian CB with similar features to those of African and Asian origin, considered more appropriate for use in chocolates. However, no clear tendency concerning the agricultural method was found.
Keywords
Hardness, Crystallization properties, Organic cocoa, Geographic region, Chemical composition, Cocoa butter, FATS, TEMPERATURE, CONSISTENCY, VARIETIES, HARDNESS, PART

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Chicago
Reis Vieira, Luana, Priscilla Efraim, Davy Van de Walle, Nathalie De Clercq, and Koen Dewettinck. 2015. “Influence of Brazilian Geographic Region and Organic Agriculture on the Composition and Crystallization Properties of Cocoa Butter.” Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 92 (11-12): 1579–1592.
APA
Reis Vieira, L., Efraim, P., Van de Walle, D., De Clercq, N., & Dewettinck, K. (2015). Influence of Brazilian geographic region and organic agriculture on the composition and crystallization properties of cocoa butter. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY, 92(11-12), 1579–1592.
Vancouver
1.
Reis Vieira L, Efraim P, Van de Walle D, De Clercq N, Dewettinck K. Influence of Brazilian geographic region and organic agriculture on the composition and crystallization properties of cocoa butter. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY. 2015;92(11-12):1579–92.
MLA
Reis Vieira, Luana, Priscilla Efraim, Davy Van de Walle, et al. “Influence of Brazilian Geographic Region and Organic Agriculture on the Composition and Crystallization Properties of Cocoa Butter.” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY 92.11-12 (2015): 1579–1592. Print.
@article{8032701,
  abstract     = {Cocoa butter (CB) is the most important ingredient in chocolate and represents the biggest share in the continuous phase of this product. The accurate composition of CB depends, among other factors, on the genetic characteristics of the cocoa tree, its agricultural handling and the farming region's climate. The influences of the cocoa-producing region in Brazil and the agricultural cultivation method on the composition and crystallization properties of CB are presented in this article. Raw CB was extracted from fruits cultivated in six main Brazilian states using two agricultural methods, organic and conventional. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acids, triacylglycerol composition, solid fat content, consistency, melting behavior and isothermal crystallization. The wide range of cocoa-producing regions in Brazil causes the distinct characteristics of the chemical composition and crystallization behavior of the CB, attributes that affect the quality of products using this raw material. Differences in consistency, hardness and crystallization parameters, among others, were observed. The results showed the great potential of using Brazilian CB with similar features to those of African and Asian origin, considered more appropriate for use in chocolates. However, no clear tendency concerning the agricultural method was found.},
  author       = {Reis Vieira, Luana and Efraim, Priscilla and Van de Walle, Davy and De Clercq, Nathalie and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {0003-021X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY},
  keyword      = {Hardness,Crystallization properties,Organic cocoa,Geographic region,Chemical composition,Cocoa butter,FATS,TEMPERATURE,CONSISTENCY,VARIETIES,HARDNESS,PART},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11-12},
  pages        = {1579--1592},
  title        = {Influence of Brazilian geographic region and organic agriculture on the composition and crystallization properties of cocoa butter},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-015-2728-y},
  volume       = {92},
  year         = {2015},
}

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