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Determining multiple responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to an antimicrobial agent, free nitrous acid

(2016) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 50(10). p.5305-5312
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Abstract
Free nitrous acid (FNA) has recently been demonstrated as an antimicrobial agent on a range of microorganisms, especially in wastewater-treatment systems. However, the antimicrobial mechanism of FNA is largely unknown. Here, we report that the antimicrobial effects of FNA are multitargeted. The response of a model denitrifier, Pseudomnas aeruginosa PAO1 (PAO1), common in wastewater treatment, was investigated in the absence and presence of inhibitory level of FNA (0.1 mg N/L) under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. This was achieved through coupling gene expression analysis, by RNA sequencing, and with a suite of physiological analyses. Various transcripts exhibited significant changes in abundance in the presence of FNA. Respiration was likely inhibited because denitrification activity was severely depleted, and decreased transcript levels of most denitrification genes occurred. As a consequence, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was inhibited due to the lowered cellular redox state in the FNA-exposed cultures. Meanwhile, during FNA exposure, PAO1 rerouted its carbon metabolic pathway from the TCA cycle to pyruvate fermentation with acetate as the end product as a possible survival mechanism. Additionally, protein synthesis was significantly decreased, and ribosome preservation was evident. These findings improve our understanding of PAO1 in response to FNA and contribute toward the potential application for use of FNA as an antimicrobial agent.
Keywords
CYSTIC-FIBROSIS, RNA-SEQ ANALYSIS, NITRIC-OXIDE, BACTERIAL, SLUDGE, STRESS, EXPRESSION, TOLERANCE, SURVIVAL, PATHWAY

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MLA
Gao, Shu-Hong et al. “Determining Multiple Responses of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa PAO1 to an Antimicrobial Agent, Free Nitrous Acid.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 50.10 (2016): 5305–5312. Print.
APA
Gao, S.-H., Fan, L., Peng, L., Guo, J., Agullo-Barcelo, M., Yuan, Z., & Bond, P. L. (2016). Determining multiple responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to an antimicrobial agent, free nitrous acid. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 50(10), 5305–5312.
Chicago author-date
Gao, Shu-Hong, Lai Fan, Lai Peng, Jianhua Guo, Míriam Agullo-Barcelo, Zhiguo Yuan, and Philip L Bond. 2016. “Determining Multiple Responses of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa PAO1 to an Antimicrobial Agent, Free Nitrous Acid.” Environmental Science & Technology 50 (10): 5305–5312.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gao, Shu-Hong, Lai Fan, Lai Peng, Jianhua Guo, Míriam Agullo-Barcelo, Zhiguo Yuan, and Philip L Bond. 2016. “Determining Multiple Responses of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa PAO1 to an Antimicrobial Agent, Free Nitrous Acid.” Environmental Science & Technology 50 (10): 5305–5312.
Vancouver
1.
Gao S-H, Fan L, Peng L, Guo J, Agullo-Barcelo M, Yuan Z, et al. Determining multiple responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to an antimicrobial agent, free nitrous acid. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 2016;50(10):5305–12.
IEEE
[1]
S.-H. Gao et al., “Determining multiple responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to an antimicrobial agent, free nitrous acid,” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 5305–5312, 2016.
@article{8030856,
  abstract     = {Free nitrous acid (FNA) has recently been demonstrated as an antimicrobial agent on a range of microorganisms, especially in wastewater-treatment systems. However, the antimicrobial mechanism of FNA is largely unknown. Here, we report that the antimicrobial effects of FNA are multitargeted. The response of a model denitrifier, Pseudomnas aeruginosa PAO1 (PAO1), common in wastewater treatment, was investigated in the absence and presence of inhibitory level of FNA (0.1 mg N/L) under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. This was achieved through coupling gene expression analysis, by RNA sequencing, and with a suite of physiological analyses. Various transcripts exhibited significant changes in abundance in the presence of FNA. Respiration was likely inhibited because denitrification activity was severely depleted, and decreased transcript levels of most denitrification genes occurred. As a consequence, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was inhibited due to the lowered cellular redox state in the FNA-exposed cultures. Meanwhile, during FNA exposure, PAO1 rerouted its carbon metabolic pathway from the TCA cycle to pyruvate fermentation with acetate as the end product as a possible survival mechanism. Additionally, protein synthesis was significantly decreased, and ribosome preservation was evident. These findings improve our understanding of PAO1 in response to FNA and contribute toward the potential application for use of FNA as an antimicrobial agent.},
  author       = {Gao, Shu-Hong and Fan, Lai and Peng, Lai and Guo, Jianhua and Agullo-Barcelo, Míriam and Yuan, Zhiguo and Bond, Philip L},
  issn         = {0013-936X},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {CYSTIC-FIBROSIS,RNA-SEQ ANALYSIS,NITRIC-OXIDE,BACTERIAL,SLUDGE,STRESS,EXPRESSION,TOLERANCE,SURVIVAL,PATHWAY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {5305--5312},
  title        = {Determining multiple responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to an antimicrobial agent, free nitrous acid},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b00288},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2016},
}

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