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Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

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Abstract
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28-56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8(+) regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise.
Keywords
TISSUES, DISEASE, PERSISTENCE, 3C GENE, HEALTHY CATS, PERITONITIS VIRUS, CAT-BREEDING COLONY, POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION, REGULATORY T-CELLS, ENTRY

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Chicago
Desmarets, Lowiese, Ben Vermeulen, Sebastiaan Theuns, Nádia Conceição-Neto, Mark Zeller, Inge Roukaerts, Delphine Acar, et al. 2016. “Experimental Feline Enteric Coronavirus Infection Reveals an Aberrant Infection Pattern and Shedding of Mutants with Impaired Infectivity in Enterocyte Cultures.” Scientific Reports 6.
APA
Desmarets, L., Vermeulen, B., Theuns, S., Conceição-Neto, N., Zeller, M., Roukaerts, I., Acar, D., et al. (2016). Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 6.
Vancouver
1.
Desmarets L, Vermeulen B, Theuns S, Conceição-Neto N, Zeller M, Roukaerts I, et al. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2016;6.
MLA
Desmarets, Lowiese, Ben Vermeulen, Sebastiaan Theuns, et al. “Experimental Feline Enteric Coronavirus Infection Reveals an Aberrant Infection Pattern and Shedding of Mutants with Impaired Infectivity in Enterocyte Cultures.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 6 (2016): n. pag. Print.
@article{8027480,
  abstract     = {Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28-56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8(+) regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise.},
  articleno    = {20022},
  author       = {Desmarets, Lowiese and Vermeulen, Ben and Theuns, Sebastiaan and Concei\c{c}{\~a}o-Neto, N{\'a}dia and Zeller, Mark and Roukaerts, Inge and Acar, Delphine and Olyslaegers, Dominique and Van Ranst, Marc and Matthijnssens, Jelle and Nauwynck, Hans},
  issn         = {2045-2322},
  journal      = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
  keyword      = {TISSUES,DISEASE,PERSISTENCE,3C GENE,HEALTHY CATS,PERITONITIS VIRUS,CAT-BREEDING COLONY,POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION,REGULATORY T-CELLS,ENTRY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep20022},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2016},
}

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