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Influence of free amino acids, oligopeptides, and polypeptides on the formation of pyrazines in Maillard model systems

Gustavo Luis Scalone (UGent) , Tatiana Cucu (UGent) , Norbert De Kimpe (UGent) and Bruno De Meulenaer (UGent)
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Abstract
Pyrazines are specific Maillard reaction compounds known to contribute to the unique aroma of many products. Most studies concerning the generation of pyrazines in the Maillard reaction have focused on amino acids, while little information is available on the impact of peptides and proteins. The present study investigated the generation of pyrazines in model systems containing whey protein, hydrolyzed whey protein, amino acids, and glucose. The impact of thermal conditions, ratio of reagents, and water activity (a(w)) on pyrazine formation was measured by headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS. The presence of oligopeptides from hydrolyzed whey protein contributed significantly to an increased amount of pyrazines, while in contrast free amino acids generated during protein hydrolysis contributed to a lesser extent. The generation of pyrazines was enhanced at low a(w) (0.33) and high temperatures (>120 degrees C). This study showed that the role of peptides in the generation of pyrazines in Maillard reaction systems has been dramatically underestimated.
Keywords
Maillard, peptides, fractions, pyrazines, flavor, model reactions, HS-SPME-GC/MS, PEPTIDE DEGRADATION, THERMAL-DEGRADATION, WATER ACTIVITY, GLUTATHIONE, CYSTEINE, DIGLYCINE, GLUCOSE, TRIGLYCINE, GLYCINE, IMPACT

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MLA
Scalone, Gustavo Luis et al. “Influence of Free Amino Acids, Oligopeptides, and Polypeptides on the Formation of Pyrazines in Maillard Model Systems.” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 63.22 (2015): 5364–5372. Print.
APA
Scalone, G. L., Cucu, T., De Kimpe, N., & De Meulenaer, B. (2015). Influence of free amino acids, oligopeptides, and polypeptides on the formation of pyrazines in Maillard model systems. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, 63(22), 5364–5372.
Chicago author-date
Scalone, Gustavo Luis, Tatiana Cucu, Norbert De Kimpe, and Bruno De Meulenaer. 2015. “Influence of Free Amino Acids, Oligopeptides, and Polypeptides on the Formation of Pyrazines in Maillard Model Systems.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (22): 5364–5372.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Scalone, Gustavo Luis, Tatiana Cucu, Norbert De Kimpe, and Bruno De Meulenaer. 2015. “Influence of Free Amino Acids, Oligopeptides, and Polypeptides on the Formation of Pyrazines in Maillard Model Systems.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (22): 5364–5372.
Vancouver
1.
Scalone GL, Cucu T, De Kimpe N, De Meulenaer B. Influence of free amino acids, oligopeptides, and polypeptides on the formation of pyrazines in Maillard model systems. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2015;63(22):5364–72.
IEEE
[1]
G. L. Scalone, T. Cucu, N. De Kimpe, and B. De Meulenaer, “Influence of free amino acids, oligopeptides, and polypeptides on the formation of pyrazines in Maillard model systems,” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 63, no. 22, pp. 5364–5372, 2015.
@article{8026587,
  abstract     = {Pyrazines are specific Maillard reaction compounds known to contribute to the unique aroma of many products. Most studies concerning the generation of pyrazines in the Maillard reaction have focused on amino acids, while little information is available on the impact of peptides and proteins. The present study investigated the generation of pyrazines in model systems containing whey protein, hydrolyzed whey protein, amino acids, and glucose. The impact of thermal conditions, ratio of reagents, and water activity (a(w)) on pyrazine formation was measured by headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS. The presence of oligopeptides from hydrolyzed whey protein contributed significantly to an increased amount of pyrazines, while in contrast free amino acids generated during protein hydrolysis contributed to a lesser extent. The generation of pyrazines was enhanced at low a(w) (0.33) and high temperatures (>120 degrees C). This study showed that the role of peptides in the generation of pyrazines in Maillard reaction systems has been dramatically underestimated.},
  author       = {Scalone, Gustavo Luis and Cucu, Tatiana and De Kimpe, Norbert and De Meulenaer, Bruno},
  issn         = {0021-8561},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY},
  keywords     = {Maillard,peptides,fractions,pyrazines,flavor,model reactions,HS-SPME-GC/MS,PEPTIDE DEGRADATION,THERMAL-DEGRADATION,WATER ACTIVITY,GLUTATHIONE,CYSTEINE,DIGLYCINE,GLUCOSE,TRIGLYCINE,GLYCINE,IMPACT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {22},
  pages        = {5364--5372},
  title        = {Influence of free amino acids, oligopeptides, and polypeptides on the formation of pyrazines in Maillard model systems},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01129},
  volume       = {63},
  year         = {2015},
}

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