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Distribution of the cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in wheat and barley fields in north-eastern regions of Syria

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Abstract
Cereal cyst nematodes (CCN) are important plant-parasitic nematodes of wheat and barley, and exist in most of the cereal growing regions of the world. As there is limited information on the nature and distribution of CCN species in Syria, a survey was conducted in north-eastern Syria to assess the distribution of CCN in the main wheat and barley growing areas. In the summer of 2009, a total of 167 composite soil samples were collected from 167 wheat and barley fields. Cysts were extracted from soil using the Fenwick can technique, then quantified and identified up to the species level by using both morphological and molecular methods. The study revealed that 62% of the fields were infested with the three Heterodera species: H. avenae, H. filipjevi and H. latipons. However, the most prevalent species was H. latipons, which was present in 76% of the infested samples, while it occurred alone in 67% of those samples. Heterodera avenae was detected singly in 20% of the samples, while 11% consisted of mixed populations with other species. Heterodera filipjevi was never detected alone; it was found mixed with H. avenae and/or H. latipons in 9% of the samples. The high number of extracted cysts (up to 116 cysts x 200 g(-1) of soil) is most likely related to the monoculture practiced in that region and the fact that growers are unaware of the existence of resistant varieties.
Keywords
Heterodera avenae, cereals, H. filipjevi. H. latipons, survey, PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES, RIBOSOMAL DNA, AVENAE GROUP, COMPLEX, REPRODUCTION, VIRULENCE, TRITICEAE, TURKEY

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MLA
Toumi, Fateh et al. “Distribution of the Cereal Cyst Nematodes (Heterodera Spp.) in Wheat and Barley Fields in North-eastern Regions of Syria.” JOURNAL OF PLANT DISEASES AND PROTECTION 122.5-6 (2015): 255–263. Print.
APA
Toumi, F., Hassan, G., Waeyenberge, L., Viaene, N., Dababat, A. A., Nicol, J., Ogbonnaya, F., et al. (2015). Distribution of the cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in wheat and barley fields in north-eastern regions of Syria. JOURNAL OF PLANT DISEASES AND PROTECTION, 122(5-6), 255–263.
Chicago author-date
Toumi, Fateh, Ghassan Hassan, Lieven Waeyenberge, Nicole Viaene, Abdelfattah A Dababat, Julie Nicol, Francis Ogbonnaya, Khaled Al-Assas, Taissir Abou Al-Fadil, and Maurice Moens. 2015. “Distribution of the Cereal Cyst Nematodes (Heterodera Spp.) in Wheat and Barley Fields in North-eastern Regions of Syria.” Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 122 (5-6): 255–263.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Toumi, Fateh, Ghassan Hassan, Lieven Waeyenberge, Nicole Viaene, Abdelfattah A Dababat, Julie Nicol, Francis Ogbonnaya, Khaled Al-Assas, Taissir Abou Al-Fadil, and Maurice Moens. 2015. “Distribution of the Cereal Cyst Nematodes (Heterodera Spp.) in Wheat and Barley Fields in North-eastern Regions of Syria.” Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 122 (5-6): 255–263.
Vancouver
1.
Toumi F, Hassan G, Waeyenberge L, Viaene N, Dababat AA, Nicol J, et al. Distribution of the cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in wheat and barley fields in north-eastern regions of Syria. JOURNAL OF PLANT DISEASES AND PROTECTION. 2015;122(5-6):255–63.
IEEE
[1]
F. Toumi et al., “Distribution of the cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in wheat and barley fields in north-eastern regions of Syria,” JOURNAL OF PLANT DISEASES AND PROTECTION, vol. 122, no. 5–6, pp. 255–263, 2015.
@article{8024519,
  abstract     = {{Cereal cyst nematodes (CCN) are important plant-parasitic nematodes of wheat and barley, and exist in most of the cereal growing regions of the world. As there is limited information on the nature and distribution of CCN species in Syria, a survey was conducted in north-eastern Syria to assess the distribution of CCN in the main wheat and barley growing areas. In the summer of 2009, a total of 167 composite soil samples were collected from 167 wheat and barley fields. Cysts were extracted from soil using the Fenwick can technique, then quantified and identified up to the species level by using both morphological and molecular methods. The study revealed that 62% of the fields were infested with the three Heterodera species: H. avenae, H. filipjevi and H. latipons. However, the most prevalent species was H. latipons, which was present in 76% of the infested samples, while it occurred alone in 67% of those samples. Heterodera avenae was detected singly in 20% of the samples, while 11% consisted of mixed populations with other species. Heterodera filipjevi was never detected alone; it was found mixed with H. avenae and/or H. latipons in 9% of the samples. The high number of extracted cysts (up to 116 cysts x 200 g(-1) of soil) is most likely related to the monoculture practiced in that region and the fact that growers are unaware of the existence of resistant varieties.}},
  author       = {{Toumi, Fateh and Hassan, Ghassan and Waeyenberge, Lieven and Viaene, Nicole and Dababat, Abdelfattah A and Nicol, Julie and Ogbonnaya, Francis and Al-Assas, Khaled and Abou Al-Fadil, Taissir and Moens, Maurice}},
  issn         = {{1861-3829}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF PLANT DISEASES AND PROTECTION}},
  keywords     = {{Heterodera avenae,cereals,H. filipjevi. H. latipons,survey,PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES,RIBOSOMAL DNA,AVENAE GROUP,COMPLEX,REPRODUCTION,VIRULENCE,TRITICEAE,TURKEY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5-6}},
  pages        = {{255--263}},
  title        = {{Distribution of the cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in wheat and barley fields in north-eastern regions of Syria}},
  volume       = {{122}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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