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The social cost of legal and illegal drugs in Belgium

Delfine Lievens (UGent) , Freya Vander Laenen (UGent) , Nick Verhaeghe (UGent) , Nele Schils (UGent) , Koen Putman, Lieven Pauwels (UGent) , Wim Hardyns (UGent) and Lieven Annemans (UGent)
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Abstract
Alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication (mis)use are associated with a higher likelihood of developing several diseases, (traffic) injuries and crimes. These substances reduce quality of life and increase the health care and law enforcement costs, productivity losses, etc. Consequently, the social and economic impact of substances on society are substantial. The SOCOST study estimates for the first time social costs for alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication in Belgium for the year 2012. This cost-of-illness study presents the direct costs, the indirect cost as well as the intangible costs related to substance (mis)use. This research was commissioned by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in the framework of the Federal Research Programme Drugs. Two universities cooperated: Ghent University, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP) and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Centre for Health Economics Research (I-CHER). The research was conducted under supervision of prof. dr. Freya Vander Laenen, prof. dr. Koen Putman, prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels, prof. dr. Wim Hardyns and prof. dr. Lieven Annemans.

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Chicago
Lievens, Delfine, Freya Vander Laenen, Nick Verhaeghe, Nele Schils, Koen Putman, Lieven Pauwels, Wim Hardyns, and Lieven Annemans. 2016. The Social Cost of Legal and Illegal Drugs in Belgium. IRCP Research Series. Vol. 51. Antwerpen: Maklu.
APA
Lievens, D., Vander Laenen, F., Verhaeghe, N., Schils, N., Putman, K., Pauwels, L., Hardyns, W., et al. (2016). The social cost of legal and illegal drugs in Belgium. IRCP research series (Vol. 51). Antwerpen: Maklu.
Vancouver
1.
Lievens D, Vander Laenen F, Verhaeghe N, Schils N, Putman K, Pauwels L, et al. The social cost of legal and illegal drugs in Belgium. IRCP research series. Antwerpen: Maklu; 2016.
MLA
Lievens, Delfine, Freya Vander Laenen, Nick Verhaeghe, et al. The Social Cost of Legal and Illegal Drugs in Belgium. Vol. 51. Antwerpen: Maklu, 2016. Print.
@book{8023955,
  abstract     = {Alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication (mis)use are associated with a higher likelihood of developing several diseases, (traffic) injuries and crimes. These substances reduce quality of life and increase the health care and law enforcement costs, productivity losses, etc. Consequently, the social and economic impact of substances on society are substantial.

The SOCOST study estimates for the first time social costs for alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication in Belgium for the year 2012. This cost-of-illness study presents the direct costs, the indirect cost as well as the intangible costs related to substance (mis)use.

This research was commissioned by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in the framework of the Federal Research Programme Drugs. Two universities cooperated: Ghent University, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP) and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Centre for Health Economics Research (I-CHER). The research was conducted under supervision of prof. dr. Freya Vander Laenen, prof. dr. Koen Putman, prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels, prof. dr. Wim Hardyns and prof. dr. Lieven Annemans.},
  author       = {Lievens, Delfine and Vander Laenen, Freya and Verhaeghe, Nick and Schils, Nele and Putman, Koen and Pauwels, Lieven and Hardyns, Wim and Annemans, Lieven},
  isbn         = {9789046608166},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {422},
  publisher    = {Maklu},
  series       = {IRCP research series},
  title        = {The social cost of legal and illegal drugs in Belgium},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2016},
}