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Quality attributes of dark chocolates formulated with palm sap‑based sugar as nutritious and natural alternative sweetener

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Abstract
Consumer demand for healthier alternative sweeteners and attempts to replace the most common sweetener used in chocolate, namely sucrose, continue to increase in recent times. One sucrose alternative that has not been fully explored in chocolate is palm sap-based sugar. This work investigated the impact of sucrose replacement by coconut sugar (CCS1 and CCS2) and palm sugar (CPS1, CPS2 and CPS3) on the quality attributes of dark chocolate, more particularly colour, hardness, flow behaviour and aroma profile. The results showed that chocolates formulated with palm sap-based sugar were lighter in colour and harder than the reference chocolate made with sucrose, which could be attributed to a lower particle density and a higher moisture of palm sap based sugar than that of sucrose. Analysis of the major volatile compounds recorded the presence of 2,3‑dihydro‑3,5‑dihydroxy‑6‑methyl‑4(H)‑pyran‑4‑one (DDMP) and high concentration of pyrazine-based compounds in the palm sap-based sugar sweetened chocolates. The former compound (DDMP) was, however, absent in the sucrose sweetened dark chocolate. The physicochemical properties of the sugars also had a significant effect on the rheological behaviour of the final chocolates with chocolates formulated with coconut sugar recording the highest Casson viscosity. With regard to fat melting, chocolates sweetened with palm sap-based sugar and sucrose exhibited similar melting range temperature. Palm sap-based sugar nevertheless seems to have great potential for dark chocolate applications with additional health benefits.
Keywords
DDMP, alternative sweetener, dark chocolate, palm sugar, coconut sugar, PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION, DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY, CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS-SPECTROMETRY, MILK CHOCOLATE, COCOA FERMENTATION, VOLATILE COMPOUNDS, SENSORY PROPERTIES, REACTION-PRODUCTS, MAILLARD REACTION, SUSPENDED-SOLIDS

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Chicago
Saputro, Arifin Dwi, Davy Van de Walle, Roger Aidoo, Michael Amoafo Mensah, Claudia Delbaere, Nathalie De Clercq, Jim Van Durme, and Koen Dewettinck. 2017. “Quality Attributes of Dark Chocolates Formulated with Palm Sap‑based Sugar as Nutritious and Natural Alternative Sweetener.” European Food Research and Technology 243 (2): 177–191.
APA
Saputro, A. D., Van de Walle, D., Aidoo, R., Amoafo Mensah, M., Delbaere, C., De Clercq, N., Van Durme, J., et al. (2017). Quality attributes of dark chocolates formulated with palm sap‑based sugar as nutritious and natural alternative sweetener. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 243(2), 177–191.
Vancouver
1.
Saputro AD, Van de Walle D, Aidoo R, Amoafo Mensah M, Delbaere C, De Clercq N, et al. Quality attributes of dark chocolates formulated with palm sap‑based sugar as nutritious and natural alternative sweetener. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY. 2017;243(2):177–91.
MLA
Saputro, Arifin Dwi, Davy Van de Walle, Roger Aidoo, et al. “Quality Attributes of Dark Chocolates Formulated with Palm Sap‑based Sugar as Nutritious and Natural Alternative Sweetener.” EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 243.2 (2017): 177–191. Print.
@article{8023815,
  abstract     = {Consumer demand for healthier alternative sweeteners and attempts to replace the most common sweetener used in chocolate, namely sucrose, continue to increase in recent times. One sucrose alternative that has not been fully explored in chocolate is palm sap-based sugar. This work investigated the impact of sucrose replacement by coconut sugar (CCS1 and CCS2) and palm sugar (CPS1, CPS2 and CPS3) on the quality attributes of dark chocolate, more particularly colour, hardness, flow behaviour and aroma profile. The results showed that chocolates formulated with palm sap-based sugar were lighter in colour and harder than the reference chocolate made with sucrose, which could be attributed to a lower particle density and a higher moisture of palm sap based sugar than that of sucrose. Analysis of the major volatile compounds recorded the presence of 2,3\unmatched{2011}dihydro\unmatched{2011}3,5\unmatched{2011}dihydroxy\unmatched{2011}6\unmatched{2011}methyl\unmatched{2011}4(H)\unmatched{2011}pyran\unmatched{2011}4\unmatched{2011}one (DDMP) and high concentration of pyrazine-based compounds in the palm sap-based sugar sweetened chocolates. The former compound (DDMP) was, however, absent in the sucrose sweetened dark chocolate. The physicochemical properties of the sugars also had a significant effect on the rheological behaviour of the final chocolates with chocolates formulated with coconut sugar recording the highest Casson viscosity. With regard to fat melting, chocolates sweetened with palm sap-based sugar and sucrose exhibited similar melting range temperature. Palm sap-based sugar nevertheless seems to have great potential for dark chocolate applications with additional health benefits.},
  author       = {Saputro, Arifin Dwi and Van de Walle, Davy and Aidoo, Roger and Amoafo Mensah, Michael and Delbaere, Claudia and De Clercq, Nathalie and Van Durme, Jim and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {1438-2377},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY},
  keyword      = {DDMP,alternative sweetener,dark chocolate,palm sugar,coconut sugar,PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION,DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY,CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS-SPECTROMETRY,MILK CHOCOLATE,COCOA FERMENTATION,VOLATILE COMPOUNDS,SENSORY PROPERTIES,REACTION-PRODUCTS,MAILLARD REACTION,SUSPENDED-SOLIDS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {177--191},
  title        = {Quality attributes of dark chocolates formulated with palm sap\unmatched{2011}based sugar as nutritious and natural alternative sweetener},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-016-2734-9},
  volume       = {243},
  year         = {2017},
}

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