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Neonatal haemorrhagic diathesis in Belgium: epidemiology

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Abstract
In 2008 and 2009 an increase in the number of cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in neonatal calves has been reported in different European countries. In Flanders, 84 cases on 30 herds have been reported between July 2008 and September 2009. Cases of neonatal haemorrhagic diathesis (NHD) were defined as: younger than one month old, cutaneous bleeding and/or petechia and/or melena, bone marrow aplasia on cytology or histology and a negative PCR result for BVD virus on EDTA blood or spleen tissue. Living calves were included if haematology showed leukopenia (< 3.0 x 109 white blood cells/liter) and thrombocytopenia (< 100 x 109 platelets/liter). 30 of 35 reported herds met these criteria. 20% of the herds had cases in more than one year. Three herds already had cases in 2007, and two other herds reported their first case in 2006. The breed distribution was 50% Holstein-Friesian, 43% Belgian Blue and 7% mixed breed. Affected herds were reported throughout Flanders. In 2008-2009 most of the newly affected herds were reported in summer and fall. On the farms the number of cases per year varied between 1 (37% of the herds) and 6 (1 herd). The total number of affected calves per farm in the period 2006-2009 varied between 1 and 9, with one herd having cases each year for 4 years and six herds for two years (one herd had cases in non consecutive years). 40% of the calves was born from heifers, 30% from 2nd parity, 25% from 3th parity and 5% from 4th parity. In two herds the same cow gave birth to two affected calves. In 63% of the herds more than one calf was affected in one year, and these cases were almost always clustered (1 day -2 weeks between the cases). In 6 out of 7 herds, in which calves younger than one month old could be blood sampled, a ‘subclinical case’ (defined as leukopenic (< 3.0 x 109 white blood cells/liter), but no bleeding symptoms) could be identified. These suspected subclinical cases were in the same age class (5-16 days old) as the clinical cases (consecutive ear tags). In one herd the dams were sampled for haematology and coagulation tests (PT and APTT): no abnormalities could be detected. On 47% of the farms only fresh colostrum from the mother was given to the case calf, whereas on 30% of the farms fresh colostrum in combination with frozen colostrum from the own herd was used. Only three herds (10%) occasionally used frozen colostrum from another herd. In one herd fresh colostrum was supplemented with a colostrum replacer. When asked for other pathologies/diseases on the farm, 83% of the herds reported a history of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) 1 to 10 years ago. On 20 farms a BVD screening had been performed in the last three years. On 5 herds PCR’s on pooled blood samples were made and returned negative. On 15 herds a youngstock screening was done, which returned completely negative on 40% of the tested herds, with some positive animals in 60% and completely positive in 20% of the herds. Routine treatment of neonatal calves was only done in few herds and included administration of tulathromycin or halofuginone. The affected herds had a variable vaccination management. All but one herd were vaccinated against BVD virus. The one herd, which didn’t vaccinate, was the farm that used colostrum replacers. Four BVD vaccines (Bovilis BVD®, Intervet Shering Plough A.H.; Mucobovin®, Merial; Pregsure BVD®, Pfizer A.H.; Rispoval Trivalent®, Pfizer A.H.) were used of which one (Pregsure BVD®, Pfizer A. H.) had been used or was still used on all but one farm. 63% of the herds was vaccinated for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. 63% vaccinated the calves for bovine respiratory disease and 20% used a vaccine for neonatal diarrhea. Bluetongue vaccination was performed on all farms, however on three farms the first cases of NHD were observed before BTV vaccination was performed.

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Chicago
Pardon, Bart, Koen De Bleecker, Lennert Steukers, Jan Dierick, Veronique Saey, Sofie Maes, Griet Vercauteren, Kris De Clercq, Richard Ducatelle, and Piet Deprez. 2009. “Neonatal Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Belgium: Epidemiology.” In Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Calves, Abstracts, ed. Claire Espinasse, 8–9. French Buiatrics Association.
APA
Pardon, B., De Bleecker, K., Steukers, L., Dierick, J., Saey, V., Maes, S., Vercauteren, G., et al. (2009). Neonatal haemorrhagic diathesis in Belgium: epidemiology. In C. Espinasse (Ed.), Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Calves, Abstracts (pp. 8–9). Presented at the Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Calves : satellite symposium of the 1st European Buiatrics Conference, French Buiatrics Association.
Vancouver
1.
Pardon B, De Bleecker K, Steukers L, Dierick J, Saey V, Maes S, et al. Neonatal haemorrhagic diathesis in Belgium: epidemiology. In: Espinasse C, editor. Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Calves, Abstracts. French Buiatrics Association; 2009. p. 8–9.
MLA
Pardon, Bart, Koen De Bleecker, Lennert Steukers, et al. “Neonatal Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Belgium: Epidemiology.” Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Calves, Abstracts. Ed. Claire Espinasse. French Buiatrics Association, 2009. 8–9. Print.
@inproceedings{802033,
  abstract     = {In 2008 and 2009 an increase in the number of cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in neonatal calves has been reported in different European countries. In Flanders, 84 cases on 30 herds have been reported between July 2008 and September 2009. Cases of neonatal haemorrhagic diathesis (NHD) were defined as: younger than one month old, cutaneous bleeding and/or petechia and/or melena, bone marrow aplasia on cytology or histology and a negative PCR result for BVD virus on EDTA blood or spleen tissue. Living calves were included if  haematology showed leukopenia (< 3.0 x 109 white blood cells/liter) and thrombocytopenia  (< 100 x 109 platelets/liter). 30 of 35 reported herds met these criteria. 20% of the herds had cases in more than one year. Three herds already had cases in 2007, and two other herds reported their first case in 2006. The breed distribution was 50% Holstein-Friesian, 43% Belgian Blue and 7% mixed breed. Affected herds were reported throughout Flanders. In 2008-2009 most of the newly affected herds were reported in summer and fall. On the farms the number of cases per year varied between 1 (37% of the herds) and 6 (1 herd). The total number of affected calves per farm in the period 2006-2009 varied between 1 and 9, with one herd having cases each year for 4 years and six herds for two years (one herd had cases in non consecutive years). 40% of the calves was born from heifers, 30% from 2nd parity, 25% from 3th parity and 5% from 4th parity. In two herds the same cow gave birth to two affected calves. In 63% of the herds more than one calf was affected in one year, and these cases were almost always clustered (1 day -2 weeks between the cases). In 6 out of 7 herds, in which calves younger than one month old could be blood sampled, a ‘subclinical case’ (defined as leukopenic (< 3.0 x 109 white blood cells/liter),  but no bleeding symptoms) could be identified. These suspected subclinical cases were in the same age class (5-16 days old) as the clinical cases (consecutive ear tags). In one herd the dams were sampled for haematology and coagulation tests (PT and APTT): no abnormalities could be detected. On 47% of the farms only fresh colostrum from the mother was given to the case calf, whereas on 30% of the farms fresh colostrum in combination with frozen colostrum from the own herd was used. Only three herds (10%) occasionally used frozen colostrum from another herd. In one herd fresh colostrum was supplemented with a colostrum replacer. When asked for other pathologies/diseases on the farm, 83% of the herds reported a history of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) 1 to 10 years ago. On 20 farms a BVD screening had been performed in the last three years. On 5 herds PCR’s on pooled blood samples were made and returned negative. On 15 herds a youngstock screening was done, which returned completely negative on 40% of the tested herds, with some positive animals in 60% and completely positive in 20% of the herds. Routine treatment of neonatal calves was only done in few herds and included administration of tulathromycin or halofuginone. The affected herds had a variable vaccination management. All but one herd were vaccinated against BVD virus. The one herd, which didn’t vaccinate, was the farm that used colostrum replacers. Four BVD vaccines (Bovilis BVD®, Intervet Shering Plough A.H.; Mucobovin®, Merial; Pregsure BVD®, Pfizer A.H.; Rispoval Trivalent®, Pfizer A.H.) were used of which one (Pregsure BVD®, Pfizer A. H.) had been used or was still used on all but one farm.  63% of the herds was vaccinated for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. 63% vaccinated the calves for bovine respiratory disease and 20% used a vaccine for neonatal diarrhea. Bluetongue vaccination was performed on all farms, however on three farms the first cases of NHD were observed before BTV vaccination was performed.},
  author       = {Pardon, Bart and De Bleecker, Koen and Steukers, Lennert and Dierick, Jan  and Saey, Veronique and Maes, Sofie and Vercauteren, Griet and De Clercq, Kris and Ducatelle, Richard and Deprez, Piet},
  booktitle    = {Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Calves, Abstracts},
  editor       = {Espinasse, Claire},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Marseille, France},
  pages        = {8--9},
  publisher    = {French Buiatrics Association},
  title        = {Neonatal haemorrhagic diathesis in Belgium: epidemiology},
  year         = {2009},
}