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Ear vein sampling procedure with a commercial beta-hydroxyebutyrate meter as a cow side test for ketosis

Bart Pardon UGent, Miel Hostens UGent, Linda Ribbers, Koen De Bleecker, Geert Opsomer UGent and Piet Deprez UGent (2009) European Buiatrics Forum, 1st, Abstracts. p.252-252
abstract
Subclinical ketosis in dairy herds is a disease of high economical significance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Precision® Xceed™ (Abbott, Illinois) ketometer as a cow side test in an ergonomic sampling procedure on venous blood samples directly from the ear veins of dairy cattle. On 12 farms a total of 119 cows were tested. Per farm four animals, within a month before parturition, and six within the first month of lactation were selected. Sampling was performed after milking during daily routine, when cows were fixated in the headlocks at the feed bunk. No disinfection with alcohol or other rinsing or clipping procedures were performed. A small notch was made with a 21 G needle into the ear vein (vena auricularis lateralis, intermedia or medialis). The ketometer was held against the drop of blood on the ear and the digital result was displayed. The test results were compared with the gold standard being BHBA determination on serum from jugular samples, taken within one minute after ear sampling. In the tested population the prevalence of subclinical ketosis was only 3.4%, when subclinical ketosis was defined as a serum BHBA concentration higher than or equal to 1,4 mmol/L. Sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 97.4%. The positive and negative predictive value were respectively 57.1% and 100.0%. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient between the ear vein sampling and the gold standard was 88.1% (P<0.0001). The correlation (R2) was 0.77. The mean difference between both methods was tested against zero using a paired sampled T-test and was found not significantly different from zero (P=0.80). The Bland-Altman plot revealed that 94 % of the observed differences between the Precision® Xceed™ and the gold standard are situated within the limits of agreement [-0.39, 0.38]. The standardized agreement index was 0.44, being higher than zero (presence of agreement) and near to 0.5 (> 0.5= good agreement). Sensitivity and specificity are similar to earlier tests on blood from the tail vein, the correlation was lower than previous studies (0.90-0.96). Statistical analysis supports ear vein sampling as a possible alternative for coccygeal vein sampling. Next to the advantages of the Precision® Xceed™, which gives immediately a digital result with a reliable combined sensitivity and specificity, the ear sampling procedure has an additional ergonomic value. The procedure is faster than coccygeal vein sampling, simple and can be planned within the daily routine when cows are fixated in the headlocks. Sampling at the feeding grid allows safe operational space and avoids unnecessary movement between the cows and manure contamination or loss of the ketometer in the manure pit. Although individual variation was present, reaction against the ear manipulation has not been experienced as more adverse than jugular or coccygeal vein sampling.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
conference
publication status
published
subject
in
European Buiatrics Forum, 1st, Abstracts
editor
Claire Espinasse
pages
252 - 252
publisher
Fench Buiatrics Association
conference name
1st European Buiatrics Forum (EBF 2009)
conference location
Marseille, France
conference start
2009-12-01
conference end
2009-12-03
ISBN
2903623431
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
C3
id
802020
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-802020
date created
2009-12-07 10:44:24
date last changed
2010-01-07 17:15:40
@inproceedings{802020,
  abstract     = {Subclinical ketosis in dairy herds is a disease of high economical significance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Precision{\textregistered} Xceed{\texttrademark} (Abbott, Illinois) ketometer as a cow side test in an ergonomic sampling procedure on venous blood samples directly from the ear veins of dairy cattle. On 12 farms a total of 119 cows were tested. Per farm four animals, within a month before parturition, and six within the first month of lactation were selected. Sampling was performed after milking during daily routine, when cows were fixated in the headlocks at the feed bunk. No disinfection with alcohol or other rinsing or clipping procedures were performed. A small notch was made with a 21 G needle into the ear vein (vena auricularis lateralis, intermedia or medialis). The ketometer was held against the drop of blood on the ear and the digital result was displayed. The test results were compared with the gold standard being BHBA determination on serum from jugular samples, taken within one minute after ear sampling. 
In the tested population the prevalence of subclinical ketosis was only 3.4\%, when subclinical ketosis was defined as a serum BHBA concentration higher than or equal to 1,4 mmol/L. Sensitivity was 100.0\% and specificity was 97.4\%. The positive and negative predictive value were respectively 57.1\% and 100.0\%. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient between the ear vein sampling and the gold standard was 88.1\% (P{\textlangle}0.0001). The correlation (R2) was 0.77. The mean difference between both methods was tested against zero using a paired sampled T-test and was found not significantly different from zero (P=0.80). The Bland-Altman plot revealed that 94 \% of the observed differences between the Precision{\textregistered} Xceed{\texttrademark} and the gold standard are situated within the limits of agreement [-0.39, 0.38]. The standardized agreement index was 0.44, being higher than zero (presence of agreement) and near to 0.5 ({\textrangle} 0.5= good agreement). Sensitivity and specificity are similar to earlier tests on blood from the tail vein, the correlation was lower than previous studies (0.90-0.96). Statistical analysis supports ear vein sampling as a possible alternative for coccygeal vein sampling. Next to the advantages of the Precision{\textregistered} Xceed{\texttrademark}, which gives immediately a digital result with a reliable combined sensitivity and specificity, the ear sampling procedure has an additional ergonomic value. The procedure is faster than coccygeal vein sampling, simple and can be planned within the daily routine when cows are fixated in the headlocks. Sampling at the feeding grid allows safe operational space and avoids unnecessary movement between the cows and manure contamination or loss of the ketometer in the manure pit. Although individual variation was present, reaction against the ear manipulation has not been experienced as more adverse than jugular or coccygeal vein sampling.},
  author       = {Pardon, Bart and Hostens, Miel and Ribbers, Linda and De Bleecker, Koen and Opsomer, Geert and Deprez, Piet},
  booktitle    = {European Buiatrics Forum, 1st, Abstracts},
  editor       = {Espinasse, Claire},
  isbn         = {2903623431},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Marseille, France},
  pages        = {252--252},
  publisher    = {Fench Buiatrics Association},
  title        = {Ear vein sampling procedure with a commercial beta-hydroxyebutyrate meter as a cow side test for ketosis},
  year         = {2009},
}

Chicago
Pardon, Bart, Miel Hostens, Linda Ribbers, Koen De Bleecker, Geert Opsomer, and Piet Deprez. 2009. “Ear Vein Sampling Procedure with a Commercial Beta-hydroxyebutyrate Meter as a Cow Side Test for Ketosis.” In European Buiatrics Forum, 1st, Abstracts, ed. Claire Espinasse, 252–252. Fench Buiatrics Association.
APA
Pardon, B., Hostens, M., Ribbers, L., De Bleecker, K., Opsomer, G., & Deprez, P. (2009). Ear vein sampling procedure with a commercial beta-hydroxyebutyrate meter as a cow side test for ketosis. In C. Espinasse (Ed.), European Buiatrics Forum, 1st, Abstracts (pp. 252–252). Presented at the 1st European Buiatrics Forum (EBF 2009), Fench Buiatrics Association.
Vancouver
1.
Pardon B, Hostens M, Ribbers L, De Bleecker K, Opsomer G, Deprez P. Ear vein sampling procedure with a commercial beta-hydroxyebutyrate meter as a cow side test for ketosis. In: Espinasse C, editor. European Buiatrics Forum, 1st, Abstracts. Fench Buiatrics Association; 2009. p. 252–252.
MLA
Pardon, Bart, Miel Hostens, Linda Ribbers, et al. “Ear Vein Sampling Procedure with a Commercial Beta-hydroxyebutyrate Meter as a Cow Side Test for Ketosis.” European Buiatrics Forum, 1st, Abstracts. Ed. Claire Espinasse. Fench Buiatrics Association, 2009. 252–252. Print.