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Characterization of on-body communication channel and energy efficient topology design for wireless body area networks

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Abstract
Wireless body area networks (WBANs) offer many promising new applications in the area of remote health monitoring. An important element in the development of a WBAN is the characterization of the physical layer of the network, including an estimation of the delay spread and the path loss between two nodes on the body. This paper discusses the propagation channel between two half-wavelength dipoles at 2.45 GHz, placed near a human body and presents an application for cross-layer design in order to optimize the energy consumption of different topologies. Propagation measurements are performed on real humans in a multipath environment, considering different parts of the body separately. In addition, path loss has been numerically investigated with an anatomically correct model of the human body in free space using a 3-D electromagnetic solver. Path loss parameters and time-domain channel characteristics are extracted from the measurement and simulation data. A semi-empirical path loss model is presented for an antenna height above the body of 5 mm and antenna separations from 5 cm up to 40 cm. A time-domain analysis is performed and models are presented for the mean excess delay and the delay spread. As a cross-layer application, the proposed path loss models are used to evaluate the energy efficiency of single-hop and multihop network topologies.
Keywords
single-hop, dipole antenna, topology design, wireless body area network (WBAN), PROPAGATION, ANTENNAS, MODEL, energy consumption, human body, multihop, path loss, propagation channel, delay spread, Cross-layer design

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MLA
Reusens, Elisabeth et al. “Characterization of On-body Communication Channel and Energy Efficient Topology Design for Wireless Body Area Networks.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE 13.6 (2009): 933–945. Print.
APA
Reusens, E., Joseph, W., Latré, B., Braem, B., Vermeeren, G., Tanghe, E., Martens, L., et al. (2009). Characterization of on-body communication channel and energy efficient topology design for wireless body area networks. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, 13(6), 933–945.
Chicago author-date
Reusens, Elisabeth, Wout Joseph, Benoît Latré, Bart Braem, Günter Vermeeren, Emmeric Tanghe, Luc Martens, Ingrid Moerman, and Chris Blondia. 2009. “Characterization of On-body Communication Channel and Energy Efficient Topology Design for Wireless Body Area Networks.” Ieee Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine 13 (6): 933–945.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Reusens, Elisabeth, Wout Joseph, Benoît Latré, Bart Braem, Günter Vermeeren, Emmeric Tanghe, Luc Martens, Ingrid Moerman, and Chris Blondia. 2009. “Characterization of On-body Communication Channel and Energy Efficient Topology Design for Wireless Body Area Networks.” Ieee Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine 13 (6): 933–945.
Vancouver
1.
Reusens E, Joseph W, Latré B, Braem B, Vermeeren G, Tanghe E, et al. Characterization of on-body communication channel and energy efficient topology design for wireless body area networks. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE. 2009;13(6):933–45.
IEEE
[1]
E. Reusens et al., “Characterization of on-body communication channel and energy efficient topology design for wireless body area networks,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 933–945, 2009.
@article{797601,
  abstract     = {Wireless body area networks (WBANs) offer many promising new applications in the area of remote health monitoring. An important element in the development of a WBAN is the characterization of the physical layer of the network, including an estimation of the delay spread and the path loss between two nodes on the body. This paper discusses the propagation channel between two half-wavelength dipoles at 2.45 GHz, placed near a human body and presents an application for cross-layer design in order to optimize the energy consumption of different topologies. Propagation measurements are performed on real humans in a multipath environment, considering different parts of the body separately. In addition, path loss has been numerically investigated with an anatomically correct model of the human body in free space using a 3-D electromagnetic solver. Path loss parameters and time-domain channel characteristics are extracted from the measurement and simulation data. A semi-empirical path loss model is presented for an antenna height above the body of 5 mm and antenna separations from 5 cm up to 40 cm. A time-domain analysis is performed and models are presented for the mean excess delay and the delay spread. As a cross-layer application, the proposed path loss models are used to evaluate the energy efficiency of single-hop and multihop network topologies.},
  author       = {Reusens, Elisabeth and Joseph, Wout and Latré, Benoît and Braem, Bart and Vermeeren, Günter and Tanghe, Emmeric and Martens, Luc and Moerman, Ingrid and Blondia, Chris},
  issn         = {1089-7771},
  journal      = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE},
  keywords     = {single-hop,dipole antenna,topology design,wireless body area network (WBAN),PROPAGATION,ANTENNAS,MODEL,energy consumption,human body,multihop,path loss,propagation channel,delay spread,Cross-layer design},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {933--945},
  title        = {Characterization of on-body communication channel and energy efficient topology design for wireless body area networks},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TITB.2009.2033054},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2009},
}

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