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Dopamine and serotonin transporter genotypes moderate sensitivity to maternal expressed emotion: the case of conduct and emotional problems in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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Abstract
Background: Mothers' positive emotions expressed about their children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with a reduced likelihood of comorbid conduct problems (CP). We examined whether this association with CP, and one with emotional problems (EMO), is moderated by variants within three genes, previously reported to be associated with ADHD and to moderate the impact of environmental risks on conduct and/or emotional problems; the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3/DAT1), the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/5HTT). Methods: Seven hundred and twenty-eight males between the ages of 5 and 17 with a DSM-IV research diagnosis of combined type ADHD were included in these analyses. Parents and teachers rated children's conduct and emotional problems. Positive maternal expressed emotion (PMEE) was coded by independent observers on comments made during a clinical assessment with the mother based on current or recent medication-free periods. Results: Sensitivity to the effects of PMEE on CP was moderated by variants of the DAT1 and 5HTT genes. Only children who did not carry the DAT1 10R/10R or the 5HTT l/l genotypes showed altered levels of CP when exposed to PMEE. The effect was most marked where the child with ADHD had both these genotypes. For EMO, sensitivity to PMEE was found only with those who carried the DAT1 9R/9R. There was no effect of DRD4 on CP or EMO. Conclusion: The gene-environment interactions observed suggested that genetic make-up can alter the degree of sensitivity an ADHD patients has to their family environment. Further research should focus on distinguishing general sensitivity genotypes from those conferring risk or protective qualities.
Keywords
genetics, teachers, mothers, expressed emotion, emotional symptoms, emotional problems, behaviour problems, conduct problems, gene x environment interaction, ADHD, serotonin transports, dopamine transport, COMMUNITY SAMPLE, ASSOCIATION TEST, DEFENSIVE RESPONSES, EXTERNALIZING BEHAVIOR, DIFFICULTIES QUESTIONNAIRE, PRENATAL SMOKING, BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS, RECEPTOR D4, DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION

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MLA
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund JS et al. “Dopamine and Serotonin Transporter Genotypes Moderate Sensitivity to Maternal Expressed Emotion: The Case of Conduct and Emotional Problems in Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.” JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY 50.9 (2009): 1052–1063. Print.
APA
Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Oades, R. D., Psychogiou, L., Chen, W., Franke, B., Buitelaar, J., Banaschewski, T., et al. (2009). Dopamine and serotonin transporter genotypes moderate sensitivity to maternal expressed emotion: the case of conduct and emotional problems in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY, 50(9), 1052–1063.
Chicago author-date
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund JS, Robert D Oades, Lamprini Psychogiou, Wai Chen, Barbara Franke, Jan Buitelaar, Tobias Banaschewski, et al. 2009. “Dopamine and Serotonin Transporter Genotypes Moderate Sensitivity to Maternal Expressed Emotion: The Case of Conduct and Emotional Problems in Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 50 (9): 1052–1063.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund JS, Robert D Oades, Lamprini Psychogiou, Wai Chen, Barbara Franke, Jan Buitelaar, Tobias Banaschewski, Richard P Ebstein, Michael Gil, Richard Anney, Ana Miranda, Herbert Roeyers, Aribert Rothenberger, Joseph Sergeant, Hans Christoph Steinhausen, Margaret Thompson, Philip Asherson, and Stephen V Faraone. 2009. “Dopamine and Serotonin Transporter Genotypes Moderate Sensitivity to Maternal Expressed Emotion: The Case of Conduct and Emotional Problems in Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 50 (9): 1052–1063.
Vancouver
1.
Sonuga-Barke EJ, Oades RD, Psychogiou L, Chen W, Franke B, Buitelaar J, et al. Dopamine and serotonin transporter genotypes moderate sensitivity to maternal expressed emotion: the case of conduct and emotional problems in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY. 2009;50(9):1052–63.
IEEE
[1]
E. J. Sonuga-Barke et al., “Dopamine and serotonin transporter genotypes moderate sensitivity to maternal expressed emotion: the case of conduct and emotional problems in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 1052–1063, 2009.
@article{790894,
  abstract     = {Background: Mothers' positive emotions expressed about their children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with a reduced likelihood of comorbid conduct problems (CP). We examined whether this association with CP, and one with emotional problems (EMO), is moderated by variants within three genes, previously reported to be associated with ADHD and to moderate the impact of environmental risks on conduct and/or emotional problems; the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3/DAT1), the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/5HTT).
Methods: Seven hundred and twenty-eight males between the ages of 5 and 17 with a DSM-IV research diagnosis of combined type ADHD were included in these analyses. Parents and teachers rated children's conduct and emotional problems. Positive maternal expressed emotion (PMEE) was coded by independent observers on comments made during a clinical assessment with the mother based on current or recent medication-free periods.
Results: Sensitivity to the effects of PMEE on CP was moderated by variants of the DAT1 and 5HTT genes. Only children who did not carry the DAT1 10R/10R or the 5HTT l/l genotypes showed altered levels of CP when exposed to PMEE. The effect was most marked where the child with ADHD had both these genotypes. For EMO, sensitivity to PMEE was found only with those who carried the DAT1 9R/9R. There was no effect of DRD4 on CP or EMO.
Conclusion: The gene-environment interactions observed suggested that genetic make-up can alter the degree of sensitivity an ADHD patients has to their family environment. Further research should focus on distinguishing general sensitivity genotypes from those conferring risk or protective qualities.},
  author       = {Sonuga-Barke, Edmund JS and Oades, Robert D and Psychogiou, Lamprini and Chen, Wai and Franke, Barbara and Buitelaar, Jan and Banaschewski, Tobias and Ebstein, Richard P and Gil, Michael and Anney, Richard and Miranda, Ana and Roeyers, Herbert and Rothenberger, Aribert and Sergeant, Joseph and Steinhausen, Hans Christoph and Thompson, Margaret and Asherson, Philip and Faraone, Stephen V},
  issn         = {0021-9630},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
  keywords     = {genetics,teachers,mothers,expressed emotion,emotional symptoms,emotional problems,behaviour problems,conduct problems,gene x environment interaction,ADHD,serotonin transports,dopamine transport,COMMUNITY SAMPLE,ASSOCIATION TEST,DEFENSIVE RESPONSES,EXTERNALIZING BEHAVIOR,DIFFICULTIES QUESTIONNAIRE,PRENATAL SMOKING,BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS,RECEPTOR D4,DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {1052--1063},
  title        = {Dopamine and serotonin transporter genotypes moderate sensitivity to maternal expressed emotion: the case of conduct and emotional problems in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02095.x},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2009},
}

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