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How distinctive are ADHD and RD?: results of a double dissociation study

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Abstract
The nature of the comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Reading Disability (RD) was examined using a double dissociation design. Children were between 8 and 12 years of age and entered into four groups: ADHD only (n = 24), ADHD+RD (n = 29), RD only (n = 41) and normal controls (n = 26). In total, 120 children participated in the study; 38 girls and 82 boys. Both ADHD and RD were associated with impairments in inhibition and lexical decision, although inhibition and lexical decision were more severely impaired in RD than in ADHD. Visuospatial working memory deficits were specific to children with only ADHD. It is concluded that there was overlap on lexical decision and to a lesser extent on inhibition between ADHD and RD. In ADHD, impairments were dependent on IQ, which suggest that the overlap in lexical decision and inhibition is different in origin for ADHD and RD. The ADHD only group was specifically characterized by deficits in visuospatial working memory. Hence, no double dissociation between ADHD and RD was found on executive functioning and lexical decision.
Keywords
ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, ADHD, RD, Executive functioning, Lexical decision, EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS, Comorbidity, NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES, READING-DISABLED CHILDREN, LEARNING-DISABILITIES, RESPONSE-INHIBITION, VARIABLE-DIFFERENCE MODEL, DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW SCHEDULE, WORKING-MEMORY IMPAIRMENTS

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Chicago
de Jong, Christien GW, Séverine Van De Voorde, Herbert Roeyers, Ruth Raymaekers, Jaap Oosterlaan, and Joseph A Sergeant. 2009. “How Distinctive Are ADHD and RD?: Results of a Double Dissociation Study.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 37 (7): 1007–1017.
APA
de Jong, C. G., Van De Voorde, S., Roeyers, H., Raymaekers, R., Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2009). How distinctive are ADHD and RD?: results of a double dissociation study. JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, 37(7), 1007–1017.
Vancouver
1.
de Jong CG, Van De Voorde S, Roeyers H, Raymaekers R, Oosterlaan J, Sergeant JA. How distinctive are ADHD and RD?: results of a double dissociation study. JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 2009;37(7):1007–17.
MLA
de Jong, Christien GW, Séverine Van De Voorde, Herbert Roeyers, et al. “How Distinctive Are ADHD and RD?: Results of a Double Dissociation Study.” JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY 37.7 (2009): 1007–1017. Print.
@article{789097,
  abstract     = {The nature of the comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Reading Disability (RD) was examined using a double dissociation design. Children were between 8 and 12 years of age and entered into four groups: ADHD only (n = 24), ADHD+RD (n = 29), RD only (n = 41) and normal controls (n = 26). In total, 120 children participated in the study; 38 girls and 82 boys. Both ADHD and RD were associated with impairments in inhibition and lexical decision, although inhibition and lexical decision were more severely impaired in RD than in ADHD. Visuospatial working memory deficits were specific to children with only ADHD. It is concluded that there was overlap on lexical decision and to a lesser extent on inhibition between ADHD and RD. In ADHD, impairments were dependent on IQ, which suggest that the overlap in lexical decision and inhibition is different in origin for ADHD and RD. The ADHD only group was specifically characterized by deficits in visuospatial working memory. Hence, no double dissociation between ADHD and RD was found on executive functioning and lexical decision.},
  author       = {de Jong, Christien GW and Van De Voorde, S{\'e}verine and Roeyers, Herbert and Raymaekers, Ruth and Oosterlaan, Jaap and Sergeant, Joseph A},
  issn         = {0091-0627},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
  keyword      = {ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,ADHD,RD,Executive functioning,Lexical decision,EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS,Comorbidity,NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES,READING-DISABLED CHILDREN,LEARNING-DISABILITIES,RESPONSE-INHIBITION,VARIABLE-DIFFERENCE MODEL,DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW SCHEDULE,WORKING-MEMORY IMPAIRMENTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {1007--1017},
  title        = {How distinctive are ADHD and RD?: results of a double dissociation study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-009-9328-y},
  volume       = {37},
  year         = {2009},
}

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