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Abstract
Recently, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has become implemented in the treatment of patients with severe heart failure. Although the improvement in systolic function after CRT implantation can be considerable, 20%-30% of patients do not respond to CRT. Evidence is accumulating that the presence of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony is mandatory for a response to CRT. Since the early 1980s attempts have been made to assess cardiac clyssynchrony with nuclear imaging, and it has been reported recently that information on LV clyssynchrony can be obtained from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT with phase analysis. Other studies with SPECT have shown that extensive scar tissue will limit the response to CRT; similarly, it has been demonstrated that viable tissue (assessed with SPECT) in the target zone for the LV pacing lead (usually the lateral wall) is needed for a response to CRT. Moreover, studies with PET have provided insight into the changes in myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and efficiency after CRT. In the current review, a comprehensive summary is provided on the potential role of nuclear imaging in the selection of heart failure patients for CRT. The value of other imaging techniques is also addressed.
Keywords
POSITRON-EMISSION-TOMOGRAPHY, LEFT-VENTRICULAR DYSSYNCHRONY, MYOCARDIAL BLOOD-FLOW, CORONARY-ARTERY-DISEASE, OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION, CONDUCTION DELAY, PHASE-ANALYSIS, nuclear imaging, cardiac resynchronization therapy, heart failure, BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK, IDIOPATHIC-DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY, HEART-FAILURE PATIENTS

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Citation

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MLA
Henneman, Maureen M et al. “Nuclear Imaging in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.” JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE 48.12 (2007): 2001–2010. Print.
APA
Henneman, M. M., Van der Wall, E. E., Ypenburg, C., Bleeker, G. B., Van De Veire, N. R., Marsan, N. A., Chen, J., et al. (2007). Nuclear imaging in cardiac resynchronization therapy. JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, 48(12), 2001–2010.
Chicago author-date
Henneman, Maureen M, Ernst E Van der Wall, Claudia Ypenburg, Gabe B. Bleeker, Nico R Van De Veire, Nina Ajmone Marsan, Ji Chen, et al. 2007. “Nuclear Imaging in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.” Journal of Nuclear Medicine 48 (12): 2001–2010.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Henneman, Maureen M, Ernst E Van der Wall, Claudia Ypenburg, Gabe B. Bleeker, Nico R Van De Veire, Nina Ajmone Marsan, Ji Chen, Ernest V Garcia, Jos JM Westenberg, Martin J Schalij, and Jeroen J Bax. 2007. “Nuclear Imaging in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.” Journal of Nuclear Medicine 48 (12): 2001–2010.
Vancouver
1.
Henneman MM, Van der Wall EE, Ypenburg C, Bleeker GB, Van De Veire NR, Marsan NA, et al. Nuclear imaging in cardiac resynchronization therapy. JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE. 2007;48(12):2001–10.
IEEE
[1]
M. M. Henneman et al., “Nuclear imaging in cardiac resynchronization therapy,” JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2001–2010, 2007.
@article{744789,
  abstract     = {Recently, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has become implemented in the treatment of patients with severe heart failure. Although the improvement in systolic function after CRT implantation can be considerable, 20%-30% of patients do not respond to CRT. Evidence is accumulating that the presence of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony is mandatory for a response to CRT. Since the early 1980s attempts have been made to assess cardiac clyssynchrony with nuclear imaging, and it has been reported recently that information on LV clyssynchrony can be obtained from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT with phase analysis. Other studies with SPECT have shown that extensive scar tissue will limit the response to CRT; similarly, it has been demonstrated that viable tissue (assessed with SPECT) in the target zone for the LV pacing lead (usually the lateral wall) is needed for a response to CRT. Moreover, studies with PET have provided insight into the changes in myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and efficiency after CRT. In the current review, a comprehensive summary is provided on the potential role of nuclear imaging in the selection of heart failure patients for CRT. The value of other imaging techniques is also addressed.},
  author       = {Henneman, Maureen M and Van der Wall, Ernst E and Ypenburg, Claudia and Bleeker, Gabe B. and Van De Veire, Nico R and Marsan, Nina Ajmone and Chen, Ji and Garcia, Ernest V and Westenberg, Jos JM and Schalij, Martin J and Bax, Jeroen J},
  issn         = {0161-5505},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {POSITRON-EMISSION-TOMOGRAPHY,LEFT-VENTRICULAR DYSSYNCHRONY,MYOCARDIAL BLOOD-FLOW,CORONARY-ARTERY-DISEASE,OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION,CONDUCTION DELAY,PHASE-ANALYSIS,nuclear imaging,cardiac resynchronization therapy,heart failure,BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK,IDIOPATHIC-DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY,HEART-FAILURE PATIENTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {2001--2010},
  title        = {Nuclear imaging in cardiac resynchronization therapy},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.107.040360},
  volume       = {48},
  year         = {2007},
}

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