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Role of staphylococcal superantigens in upper airway disease

Claus Bachert (UGent) , Nan Zhang (UGent) , Joke Patou (UGent) , Thibaut Van Zele (UGent) and Philippe Gevaert (UGent)
Author
Organization
Abstract
Purpose of review Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps often represents a chronic severe inflammatory disease of the upper airways and may serve as a model for lower airway diseases such as late-onset intrinsic asthma. Enterotoxins derived from Staphylococcus aureus have been implicated in the pathophysiology of nasal polyps as disease-modifying factors; recent findings using therapeutic proof-of-concept approaches support this hypothesis. Recent findings Nasal polyps (chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps) are characterized by a T-helper-2 dominated cytokine pattern that includes interleukin-5 and formation of immunoglobulin E. This is in contrast to chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps, which exhibits T-helper-1 biased cytokine release. It is now evident that the cytokine environment is decisive regarding the impact of S. aureus derived enterotoxins, which function as superantigens. S. aureus enterotoxin B further shifts the cytokine pattern in nasal polyps toward T-helper-2 cytokines (increases greater than twofold for interleukin-2, interleukin-4 and interleukin-5), but it disfavours the T-regulatory cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta(1). Furthermore, S. aureus derived enterotoxins influence local immunoglobulin synthesis and induce polyclonal immunoglobulin E production, which may contribute to severe inflammation via activation of mast cells. Summary From this new understanding of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, new therapeutic approaches emerge such as anti-interleukin-5, anti-immunoglobulin E, and antibiotic treatment. These may enlarge the nonsurgical armentarium.
Keywords
EXPRESSION, AUREUS, RHINOSINUSITIS, EXOTOXINS, immunoglobulin E, interleukin-5, nasal polyps, Staphylococcus aureus, superantigens, EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATION, ALLERGIC RHINITIS PATIENTS, NASAL POLYPOSIS, ENTEROTOXINS, IGE, ATOPIC-DERMATITIS

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Bachert, Claus et al. “Role of Staphylococcal Superantigens in Upper Airway Disease.” CURRENT OPINION IN ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 8.1 (2008): 34–38. Print.
APA
Bachert, C., Zhang, N., Patou, J., Van Zele, T., & Gevaert, P. (2008). Role of staphylococcal superantigens in upper airway disease. CURRENT OPINION IN ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 8(1), 34–38.
Chicago author-date
Bachert, Claus, Nan Zhang, Joke Patou, Thibaut Van Zele, and Philippe Gevaert. 2008. “Role of Staphylococcal Superantigens in Upper Airway Disease.” Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 8 (1): 34–38.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bachert, Claus, Nan Zhang, Joke Patou, Thibaut Van Zele, and Philippe Gevaert. 2008. “Role of Staphylococcal Superantigens in Upper Airway Disease.” Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 8 (1): 34–38.
Vancouver
1.
Bachert C, Zhang N, Patou J, Van Zele T, Gevaert P. Role of staphylococcal superantigens in upper airway disease. CURRENT OPINION IN ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY. 2008;8(1):34–8.
IEEE
[1]
C. Bachert, N. Zhang, J. Patou, T. Van Zele, and P. Gevaert, “Role of staphylococcal superantigens in upper airway disease,” CURRENT OPINION IN ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 2008.
@article{744663,
  abstract     = {Purpose of review Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps often represents a chronic severe inflammatory disease of the upper airways and may serve as a model for lower airway diseases such as late-onset intrinsic asthma. Enterotoxins derived from Staphylococcus aureus have been implicated in the pathophysiology of nasal polyps as disease-modifying factors; recent findings using therapeutic proof-of-concept approaches support this hypothesis.
Recent findings Nasal polyps (chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps) are characterized by a T-helper-2 dominated cytokine pattern that includes interleukin-5 and formation of immunoglobulin E. This is in contrast to chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps, which exhibits T-helper-1 biased cytokine release. It is now evident that the cytokine environment is decisive regarding the impact of S. aureus derived enterotoxins, which function as superantigens. S. aureus enterotoxin B further shifts the cytokine pattern in nasal polyps toward T-helper-2 cytokines (increases greater than twofold for interleukin-2, interleukin-4 and interleukin-5), but it disfavours the T-regulatory cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta(1). Furthermore, S. aureus derived enterotoxins influence local immunoglobulin synthesis and induce polyclonal immunoglobulin E production, which may contribute to severe inflammation via activation of mast cells.
Summary From this new understanding of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, new therapeutic approaches emerge such as anti-interleukin-5, anti-immunoglobulin E, and antibiotic treatment. These may enlarge the nonsurgical armentarium.},
  author       = {Bachert, Claus and Zhang, Nan and Patou, Joke and Van Zele, Thibaut and Gevaert, Philippe},
  issn         = {1528-4050},
  journal      = {CURRENT OPINION IN ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {EXPRESSION,AUREUS,RHINOSINUSITIS,EXOTOXINS,immunoglobulin E,interleukin-5,nasal polyps,Staphylococcus aureus,superantigens,EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATION,ALLERGIC RHINITIS PATIENTS,NASAL POLYPOSIS,ENTEROTOXINS,IGE,ATOPIC-DERMATITIS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {34--38},
  title        = {Role of staphylococcal superantigens in upper airway disease},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0b013e3282f4178f},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2008},
}

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