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Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B, protein A, and lipoteichoic acid stimulations in nasal polyps

Joke Patou (UGent) , Philippe Gevaert (UGent) , Thibaut Van Zele (UGent) , Gabriële Holtappels (UGent) , Paul Van Cauwenberge (UGent) and Claus Bachert (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: Increasing evidence points toward a modifying role of Staphylococcus aureus and its products in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate cytokine and mediator production after stimulation with S aureus-derived proteins enterotoxin B, protein A, and lipoteichoic acid in nasal polyp and control inferior turbinate tissue. Methods: Tissue fragments were stimulated with RPMI (negative control), enterotoxin B, protein A, and lipoteichoic acid for 30 minutes and 24 hours. Supernatants were measured by multiplex for proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha) and T-cell and subset-related cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13). Histamine, TGF-beta 1, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and prostaglandin D-2 were analyzed by ELISA. Results: Thirty minutes of protein A stimulation resulted in a significant increase of histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandin D-2. Enterotoxin B stimulation over a period of 24 hours induced a significant increase of IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 in both groups, with this increase significantly higher in nasal polyps compared with controls. Conclusion: We here show that S aureus products have various effects on mucosal tissues: surface protein A induces mast cell degranulation, whereas enterotoxins induce the release of cytokines, with a T(H)2-skewed pattern in nasal polyps, supporting the stimulatory role of superantigens in the development of this inflammatory disease.
Keywords
nasal polyps, chronic rhinosinusitis, RESPONSES, COLONIZATION, EXOTOXINS, ACTIVATION, IGE, STRUCTURAL BASIS, CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE, lipoteichoic acid, tissue stimulations, BACTERIAL SUPERANTIGENS, MAST-CELLS, Staphylococcus aureus, protein A, ATOPIC-DERMATITIS

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Chicago
Patou, Joke, Philippe Gevaert, Thibaut Van Zele, Gabriële Holtappels, Paul Van Cauwenberge, and Claus Bachert. 2008. “Staphylococcus Aureus Enterotoxin B, Protein A, and Lipoteichoic Acid Stimulations in Nasal Polyps.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 121 (1): 110–115.
APA
Patou, J., Gevaert, P., Van Zele, T., Holtappels, G., Van Cauwenberge, P., & Bachert, C. (2008). Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B, protein A, and lipoteichoic acid stimulations in nasal polyps. JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 121(1), 110–115.
Vancouver
1.
Patou J, Gevaert P, Van Zele T, Holtappels G, Van Cauwenberge P, Bachert C. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B, protein A, and lipoteichoic acid stimulations in nasal polyps. JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY. 2008;121(1):110–5.
MLA
Patou, Joke, Philippe Gevaert, Thibaut Van Zele, et al. “Staphylococcus Aureus Enterotoxin B, Protein A, and Lipoteichoic Acid Stimulations in Nasal Polyps.” JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 121.1 (2008): 110–115. Print.
@article{744624,
  abstract     = {Background: Increasing evidence points toward a modifying role of Staphylococcus aureus and its products in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. 
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate cytokine and mediator production after stimulation with S aureus-derived proteins enterotoxin B, protein A, and lipoteichoic acid in nasal polyp and control inferior turbinate tissue. 
Methods: Tissue fragments were stimulated with RPMI (negative control), enterotoxin B, protein A, and lipoteichoic acid for 30 minutes and 24 hours. Supernatants were measured by multiplex for proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha) and T-cell and subset-related cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13). Histamine, TGF-beta 1, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and prostaglandin D-2 were analyzed by ELISA. 
Results: Thirty minutes of protein A stimulation resulted in a significant increase of histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandin D-2. Enterotoxin B stimulation over a period of 24 hours induced a significant increase of IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 in both groups, with this increase significantly higher in nasal polyps compared with controls. 
Conclusion: We here show that S aureus products have various effects on mucosal tissues: surface protein A induces mast cell degranulation, whereas enterotoxins induce the release of cytokines, with a T(H)2-skewed pattern in nasal polyps, supporting the stimulatory role of superantigens in the development of this inflammatory disease.},
  author       = {Patou, Joke and Gevaert, Philippe and Van Zele, Thibaut and Holtappels, Gabri{\"e}le and Van Cauwenberge, Paul and Bachert, Claus},
  issn         = {0091-6749},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {110--115},
  title        = {Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B, protein A, and lipoteichoic acid stimulations in nasal polyps},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2007.08.059},
  volume       = {121},
  year         = {2008},
}

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