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Abstract
Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are genderqueer' or non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging presence and advocacy of these groups of people. Population-based studies show a small percentage - but a sizable proportion in terms of raw numbers - of people who identify as non-binary. While such genders have been extant historically and globally, they remain marginalized, and as such - while not being disorders or pathological in themselves - people with such genders remain at risk of victimization and of minority or marginalization stress as a result of discrimination. This paper therefore reviews the limited literature on this field and considers ways in which (mental) health professionals may assist the people with genderqueer and non-binary gender identities and/or expressions they may see in their practice. Treatment options and associated risks are discussed.
Keywords
Transgender, Non-binary, Transsexual, MALE-TO-FEMALE, PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITY, TRANSSEXUAL PERSONS, IDENTITY DISORDER, DYSPHORIA, ADULTS, DIAGNOSES, BEHAVIOR, OPTIONS, Gender, Genderqueer

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Richards, Christina, Walter Pierre Bouman, Leighton Seal, Meg John Barker, Timo O Nieder, and Guy T’Sjoen. 2016. “Non-binary or Genderqueer Genders.” International Review of Psychiatry 28 (1): 95–102.
APA
Richards, C., Bouman, W. P., Seal, L., Barker, M. J., Nieder, T. O., & T’Sjoen, G. (2016). Non-binary or genderqueer genders. INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF PSYCHIATRY, 28(1), 95–102.
Vancouver
1.
Richards C, Bouman WP, Seal L, Barker MJ, Nieder TO, T’Sjoen G. Non-binary or genderqueer genders. INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF PSYCHIATRY. 2016;28(1):95–102.
MLA
Richards, Christina et al. “Non-binary or Genderqueer Genders.” INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF PSYCHIATRY 28.1 (2016): 95–102. Print.
@article{7279758,
  abstract     = {Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are genderqueer' or non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging presence and advocacy of these groups of people. Population-based studies show a small percentage - but a sizable proportion in terms of raw numbers - of people who identify as non-binary. While such genders have been extant historically and globally, they remain marginalized, and as such - while not being disorders or pathological in themselves - people with such genders remain at risk of victimization and of minority or marginalization stress as a result of discrimination. This paper therefore reviews the limited literature on this field and considers ways in which (mental) health professionals may assist the people with genderqueer and non-binary gender identities and/or expressions they may see in their practice. Treatment options and associated risks are discussed.},
  author       = {Richards, Christina and Bouman, Walter Pierre and Seal, Leighton and Barker, Meg John and Nieder, Timo O and T'Sjoen, Guy},
  issn         = {0954-0261},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF PSYCHIATRY},
  keywords     = {Transgender,Non-binary,Transsexual,MALE-TO-FEMALE,PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITY,TRANSSEXUAL PERSONS,IDENTITY DISORDER,DYSPHORIA,ADULTS,DIAGNOSES,BEHAVIOR,OPTIONS,Gender,Genderqueer},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {95--102},
  title        = {Non-binary or genderqueer genders},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2015.1106446},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {2016},
}

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