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Abstract
Purpose of review : Transgender individuals experience unique health disparities but are the subject of little focused health research. This manuscript reviews current literature on transgender medical and mental health outcomes and proposes research priorities to address knowledge gaps. Recent findings : Published research in transgender healthcare consists primarily of case reports, retrospective and cross-sectional studies, involving largely European settings. Challenges to US-based transgender health research include a diverse population where no single center has sufficient patient base to conduct clinical research with statistical rigor. Treatment regimens are heterogeneous and warrant study for best practices. Current research suggests increased mortality and depression in transgender individuals not receiving optimal care, and possibly a modest increase in cardiovascular risk related to hormone therapy. Current evidence does not support concerns for hormone-related malignancy risk. The priorities for transgender medical outcomes research should be to determine health disparities and comorbid health conditions over the life span, along with the effects of mental health, medical, and surgical interventions on morbidity and mortality. Specific outcomes of interest based on frequency in the literature, potential severity of outcome, and patient-centered interest, include affective disorders, cardiovascular disease, malignancies, fertility, and time dose-related responses of specific interventions.
Keywords
PROSTATE-CANCER, BREAST-CANCER, TERM-FOLLOW-UP, TO-MALE TRANSSEXUALS, MALE TRANSSEXUAL PERSONS, SEX HORMONE-TREATMENT, medical outcomes, transgender, health disparities, health research, MENTAL-HEALTH, VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM, CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE, RECEIVING TREATMENT

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Chicago
Feldman, Jamie, George R Brown, Madeline B Deutsch, Wylie Hembree, Walter Meyer, Heino FL Meyer-Bahlburg, Vin Tangpricha, Guy T’Sjoen, and Joshua D Safer. 2016. “Priorities for Transgender Medical and Healthcare Research.” Current Opinion in Endocrinology Diabetes and Obesity 23 (2): 180–187.
APA
Feldman, J., Brown, G. R., Deutsch, M. B., Hembree, W., Meyer, W., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F., Tangpricha, V., et al. (2016). Priorities for transgender medical and healthcare research. CURRENT OPINION IN ENDOCRINOLOGY DIABETES AND OBESITY, 23(2), 180–187.
Vancouver
1.
Feldman J, Brown GR, Deutsch MB, Hembree W, Meyer W, Meyer-Bahlburg HF, et al. Priorities for transgender medical and healthcare research. CURRENT OPINION IN ENDOCRINOLOGY DIABETES AND OBESITY. 2016;23(2):180–7.
MLA
Feldman, Jamie et al. “Priorities for Transgender Medical and Healthcare Research.” CURRENT OPINION IN ENDOCRINOLOGY DIABETES AND OBESITY 23.2 (2016): 180–187. Print.
@article{7279721,
  abstract     = {Purpose of review : Transgender individuals experience unique health disparities but are the subject of little focused health research. This manuscript reviews current literature on transgender medical and mental health outcomes and proposes research priorities to address knowledge gaps. 
Recent findings : Published research in transgender healthcare consists primarily of case reports, retrospective and cross-sectional studies, involving largely European settings. Challenges to US-based transgender health research include a diverse population where no single center has sufficient patient base to conduct clinical research with statistical rigor. Treatment regimens are heterogeneous and warrant study for best practices. Current research suggests increased mortality and depression in transgender individuals not receiving optimal care, and possibly a modest increase in cardiovascular risk related to hormone therapy. Current evidence does not support concerns for hormone-related malignancy risk. 
The priorities for transgender medical outcomes research should be to determine health disparities and comorbid health conditions over the life span, along with the effects of mental health, medical, and surgical interventions on morbidity and mortality. Specific outcomes of interest based on frequency in the literature, potential severity of outcome, and patient-centered interest, include affective disorders, cardiovascular disease, malignancies, fertility, and time dose-related responses of specific interventions.},
  author       = {Feldman, Jamie and Brown, George R and Deutsch, Madeline B and Hembree, Wylie and Meyer, Walter and Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino FL and Tangpricha, Vin and T'Sjoen, Guy and Safer, Joshua D},
  issn         = {1752-296X},
  journal      = {CURRENT OPINION IN ENDOCRINOLOGY DIABETES AND OBESITY},
  keywords     = {PROSTATE-CANCER,BREAST-CANCER,TERM-FOLLOW-UP,TO-MALE TRANSSEXUALS,MALE TRANSSEXUAL PERSONS,SEX HORMONE-TREATMENT,medical outcomes,transgender,health disparities,health research,MENTAL-HEALTH,VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM,CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE,RECEIVING TREATMENT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {180--187},
  title        = {Priorities for transgender medical and healthcare research},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MED.0000000000000231},
  volume       = {23},
  year         = {2016},
}

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