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Biomarkers of selenium status in dogs

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Abstract
Background: Inadequate dietary selenium (Se) intake in humans and animals can lead to long term health problems, such as cancer. In view of the owner's desire for healthy longevity of companion animals, the impact of dietary Se provision on long term health effects warrants investigation. Little is currently known regards biomarkers, and rate of change of such biomarkers in relation to dietary selenium intake in dogs. In this study, selected biomarkers were assessed for their suitability to detect changes in dietary Se in adult dogs within eight weeks. Results: Twenty-four dogs were fed a semi-purified diet with an adequate amount of Se (46.1 mu g/MJ) over an 8 week period. They were then divided into two groups. The first group remained on the adequate Se diet, the second were offered a semi-purified diet with a low Se concentration (6.5 mu g/MJ; 31 % of the FEDIAF minimum) for 8 weeks. Weekly urine and blood was collected and hair growth measurements were performed. The urinary Se to creatinine ratio and serum Se concentration were significantly lower in dogs consuming the low Se diet from week 1 onwards, by 84 % (adequate 25.3, low 4.1) and 7 % (adequate 257 mu g/L, low 238 mu g/L) respectively. Serum and whole blood glutathione peroxidase were also significantly lower in dogs consuming the low Se diet from weeks 6 and 8 respectively. None of the other biomarkers (mRNA expression and serum copper, creatine kinase, triiodothyronine: thyroxine ratio and hair growth) responded significantly to the low Se diet over the 8 week period. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that urinary Se to creatinine ratio, serum Se and serum and whole blood glutathione peroxidase can be used as biomarkers of selenium status in dogs. Urinary Se to creatinine ratio and serum Se concentrations responded faster to decreased dietary Se than the other parameters. This makes these biomarkers candidates for early screening of long term effects of dietary Se provision on canine health.
Keywords
PET FOODS, VITAMIN-E, ORGANIC SELENIUM, GLUTATHIONE-PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY, SELENOPROTEIN MESSENGER-RNA, Urine, mRNA expression, Canine, Thyroid hormones, Selenium, Glutathione peroxidase, RATS, SUPPLEMENTATION, DEFICIENCY, METABOLISM, EXPRESSION

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Chicago
Van Zelst, Marielle, Myriam Hesta, Kerry Gray, Ruth Staunton, Gijs Du Laing, and Geert Janssens. 2016. “Biomarkers of Selenium Status in Dogs.” Bmc Veterinary Research 12.
APA
Van Zelst, M., Hesta, M., Gray, K., Staunton, R., Du Laing, G., & Janssens, G. (2016). Biomarkers of selenium status in dogs. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, 12.
Vancouver
1.
Van Zelst M, Hesta M, Gray K, Staunton R, Du Laing G, Janssens G. Biomarkers of selenium status in dogs. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2016;12.
MLA
Van Zelst, Marielle, Myriam Hesta, Kerry Gray, et al. “Biomarkers of Selenium Status in Dogs.” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 12 (2016): n. pag. Print.
@article{7259643,
  abstract     = {Background: Inadequate dietary selenium (Se) intake in humans and animals can lead to long term health problems, such as cancer. In view of the owner's desire for healthy longevity of companion animals, the impact of dietary Se provision on long term health effects warrants investigation. Little is currently known regards biomarkers, and rate of change of such biomarkers in relation to dietary selenium intake in dogs. In this study, selected biomarkers were assessed for their suitability to detect changes in dietary Se in adult dogs within eight weeks. 
Results: Twenty-four dogs were fed a semi-purified diet with an adequate amount of Se (46.1 mu g/MJ) over an 8 week period. They were then divided into two groups. The first group remained on the adequate Se diet, the second were offered a semi-purified diet with a low Se concentration (6.5 mu g/MJ; 31 \% of the FEDIAF minimum) for 8 weeks. Weekly urine and blood was collected and hair growth measurements were performed. The urinary Se to creatinine ratio and serum Se concentration were significantly lower in dogs consuming the low Se diet from week 1 onwards, by 84 \% (adequate 25.3, low 4.1) and 7 \% (adequate 257 mu g/L, low 238 mu g/L) respectively. Serum and whole blood glutathione peroxidase were also significantly lower in dogs consuming the low Se diet from weeks 6 and 8 respectively. None of the other biomarkers (mRNA expression and serum copper, creatine kinase, triiodothyronine: thyroxine ratio and hair growth) responded significantly to the low Se diet over the 8 week period. 
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that urinary Se to creatinine ratio, serum Se and serum and whole blood glutathione peroxidase can be used as biomarkers of selenium status in dogs. Urinary Se to creatinine ratio and serum Se concentrations responded faster to decreased dietary Se than the other parameters. This makes these biomarkers candidates for early screening of long term effects of dietary Se provision on canine health.},
  articleno    = {15},
  author       = {Van Zelst, Marielle and Hesta, Myriam and Gray, Kerry and Staunton, Ruth and Du Laing, Gijs and Janssens, Geert},
  issn         = {1746-6148},
  journal      = {BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {PET FOODS,VITAMIN-E,ORGANIC SELENIUM,GLUTATHIONE-PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY,SELENOPROTEIN MESSENGER-RNA,Urine,mRNA expression,Canine,Thyroid hormones,Selenium,Glutathione peroxidase,RATS,SUPPLEMENTATION,DEFICIENCY,METABOLISM,EXPRESSION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Biomarkers of selenium status in dogs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0639-2},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2016},
}

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