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Factors affecting mechanical nociceptive thresholds in healthy sows

Elena Nalon (UGent) , Dominiek Maes (UGent) , Sofie Piepers (UGent) , Polly Taylor, Miriam MJ van Riet (UGent) , Geert Janssens (UGent) , Sam Millet (UGent) and Frank Tuyttens (UGent)
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Abstract
Objective: To describe anatomical and methodological factors influencing mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and intra-site variability in healthy sows. Study design: Prospective, randomized validation. Animals: Eight pregnant, healthy, mixed-parity sows (176-269kg). Methods: Repeated MNT measurements were taken: 1) with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; 2) at nine landmarks on the limbs and tail; and 3) at 1 and 3minute intervals. Data were analysed using linear mixed regression models. Results: The MNTs (SEM) of the limbs were lower with the probe (14.7 +/- 1.2N) than with the actuator (21.3 +/- 1.2N; p<0.001), in the pelvic versus the thoracic limbs (16.7 +/- 1.2 versus 19.2 +/- 1.2N; p<0.001), and in the lateral versus the dorsal metatarsi and metacarpi (17.6 +/- 1.2 versus 18.4 +/- 1.2N; p=0.002). MNTs were higher in all subsequent measurements compared with the first (p<0.001) and in the morning compared with the afternoon (p=0.04). We found no evidence of MNT differences based on interval between consecutive measurements (1 versus 3minutes). Variability was lower in the thoracic limbs [mean back-transformed log(10) coefficient of variation (CV)+/- SE=25.5 +/- 1.5% versus 30.6 +/- 1.5% in the pelvic limbs; p<0.001], with the actuator (22.7 +/- 1.5% versus 33.4 +/- 1.5% with the probe; p<0.001), and on the left (CV=26.9 +/- 1.5% versus 29.3 +/- 1.5% on the right; p=0.01). Tail data (probe only) were analysed separately: mean MNT (+/- SE) was 11.7 (+/- 1.8); MNT increased in days 3-6 of testing compared with day 1 (p< 0.001). The mean CV (+/- SE) was 38.9% (+/- 1.1%). Conclusions and clinical relevance: MNTs and intra-site variability in healthy sows were affected by several factors, indicating that this methodology requires considerable attention to detail.
Keywords
HYPERALGESIA, PIGLETS, LAMENESS, ANIMAL-MODELS, PRESSURE ALGOMETRY, THERMAL NOCICEPTION, DAIRY-CATTLE, QUALITY-OF-LIFE, EVOKED CUTANEOUS PAIN, variability, pig, pain, measurement, mechanical nociceptive threshold, SHEEP

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Chicago
Nalon, Elena, Dominiek Maes, Sofie Piepers, Polly Taylor, Miriam MJ van Riet, Geert Janssens, Sam Millet, and Frank Tuyttens. 2016. “Factors Affecting Mechanical Nociceptive Thresholds in Healthy Sows.” Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 43 (3): 343–355.
APA
Nalon, E., Maes, D., Piepers, S., Taylor, P., van Riet, M. M., Janssens, G., Millet, S., et al. (2016). Factors affecting mechanical nociceptive thresholds in healthy sows. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 43(3), 343–355.
Vancouver
1.
Nalon E, Maes D, Piepers S, Taylor P, van Riet MM, Janssens G, et al. Factors affecting mechanical nociceptive thresholds in healthy sows. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA. 2016;43(3):343–55.
MLA
Nalon, Elena, Dominiek Maes, Sofie Piepers, et al. “Factors Affecting Mechanical Nociceptive Thresholds in Healthy Sows.” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 43.3 (2016): 343–355. Print.
@article{7259623,
  abstract     = {Objective: To describe anatomical and methodological factors influencing mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and intra-site variability in healthy sows. 
Study design: Prospective, randomized validation. 
Animals: Eight pregnant, healthy, mixed-parity sows (176-269kg). 
Methods: Repeated MNT measurements were taken: 1) with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; 2) at nine landmarks on the limbs and tail; and 3) at 1 and 3minute intervals. Data were analysed using linear mixed regression models. 
Results: The MNTs (SEM) of the limbs were lower with the probe (14.7 +/- 1.2N) than with the actuator (21.3 +/- 1.2N; p{\textlangle}0.001), in the pelvic versus the thoracic limbs (16.7 +/- 1.2 versus 19.2 +/- 1.2N; p{\textlangle}0.001), and in the lateral versus the dorsal metatarsi and metacarpi (17.6 +/- 1.2 versus 18.4 +/- 1.2N; p=0.002). MNTs were higher in all subsequent measurements compared with the first (p{\textlangle}0.001) and in the morning compared with the afternoon (p=0.04). We found no evidence of MNT differences based on interval between consecutive measurements (1 versus 3minutes). Variability was lower in the thoracic limbs [mean back-transformed log(10) coefficient of variation (CV)+/- SE=25.5 +/- 1.5\% versus 30.6 +/- 1.5\% in the pelvic limbs; p{\textlangle}0.001], with the actuator (22.7 +/- 1.5\% versus 33.4 +/- 1.5\% with the probe; p{\textlangle}0.001), and on the left (CV=26.9 +/- 1.5\% versus 29.3 +/- 1.5\% on the right; p=0.01). Tail data (probe only) were analysed separately: mean MNT (+/- SE) was 11.7 (+/- 1.8); MNT increased in days 3-6 of testing compared with day 1 (p{\textlangle} 0.001). The mean CV (+/- SE) was 38.9\% (+/- 1.1\%). 
Conclusions and clinical relevance: MNTs and intra-site variability in healthy sows were affected by several factors, indicating that this methodology requires considerable attention to detail.},
  author       = {Nalon, Elena and Maes, Dominiek and Piepers, Sofie and Taylor, Polly and van Riet, Miriam MJ and Janssens, Geert and Millet, Sam and Tuyttens, Frank},
  issn         = {1467-2987},
  journal      = {VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {343--355},
  title        = {Factors affecting mechanical nociceptive thresholds in healthy sows},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12313},
  volume       = {43},
  year         = {2016},
}

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