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How adolescents' identities and achievements are gendered above and beyond their sex

Ellen Huyge (UGent) and Mieke Van Houtte (UGent)
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Abstract
Qualitative sociological research on student femininities and masculinities, depict a colourful image of student profiles among adolescents. Nevertheless, the tradition presupposes that ‘girls’ enact multiple femininities and ‘boys’ perform masculinities, whilst reality aligns with ‘bodies’ enmeshing feminine and masculine practices. Moreover, the tradition lacks large-scale evidence. Using quantitative methodological techniques, this study attempts to meet both gaps. Cluster analysis identified four gender identity profiles among 5.635 13-year-olds in Flanders, Belgium. A first cluster included adolescents who reported gender stereotypical ideas and behaviour and good integration among peers at school. Crosstabs showed that eight in 10 of them were ’boys’. Another cluster embraced adolescents who reported similar stereotypical - but less extreme - ideas and behaviour, but poor integration among peers. Six in 10 of them were ’boys’. Another cluster included moderate-integrated adolescents that reported gender egalitarian ideas and gender transgressive behaviour. Seven in 10 of them were ’girls’. A last cluster embraced well-integrated adolescents who reported gender egalitarian ideas but gender typical behaviour. Six in 10 of them were ’girls’. Multilevel analyses indicated that both aspects of gender, ’presupposed sex’ and gender identity, equally contribute to differences in language achievement. Moreover, the traditional gender gap in education (i.e. gap between ’girls’ and ’boys’), becomes a little less important when one accounts for gender identity. This result suggests we cannot understand the effect of ’sex’ on achievement without considering the effect of gender identity and vice versa. It argues the need to broaden the conventional gender-dichotomy in quantitative gender gap research.
Keywords
cluster analysis, academic achievement, sex and gender gap, gender(ed) identities, secondary education

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Chicago
Huyge, Ellen, and Mieke Van Houtte. 2016. “How Adolescents’ Identities and Achievements Are Gendered Above and Beyond Their Sex.” In Conference of the Gender and Education Association, Abstracts.
APA
Huyge, E., & Van Houtte, M. (2016). How adolescents’ identities and achievements are gendered above and beyond their sex. Conference of the Gender and Education Association, Abstracts. Presented at the Conference of the Gender and Education Association.
Vancouver
1.
Huyge E, Van Houtte M. How adolescents’ identities and achievements are gendered above and beyond their sex. Conference of the Gender and Education Association, Abstracts. 2016.
MLA
Huyge, Ellen, and Mieke Van Houtte. “How Adolescents’ Identities and Achievements Are Gendered Above and Beyond Their Sex.” Conference of the Gender and Education Association, Abstracts. 2016. Print.
@inproceedings{7250693,
  abstract     = {Qualitative sociological research on student femininities and masculinities, depict a colourful image of student profiles among adolescents. Nevertheless, the tradition presupposes that {\textquoteleft}girls{\textquoteright} enact multiple femininities and {\textquoteleft}boys{\textquoteright} perform masculinities, whilst reality aligns with {\textquoteleft}bodies{\textquoteright} enmeshing feminine and masculine practices. Moreover, the tradition lacks large-scale evidence. Using quantitative methodological techniques, this study attempts to meet both gaps. 

Cluster analysis identified four gender identity profiles among 5.635 13-year-olds in Flanders, Belgium. A first cluster included adolescents who reported gender stereotypical ideas and behaviour and good integration among peers at school. Crosstabs showed that eight in 10 of them were {\textquoteright}boys{\textquoteright}. Another cluster embraced adolescents who reported similar stereotypical - but less extreme - ideas and behaviour, but poor integration among peers. Six in 10 of them were {\textquoteright}boys{\textquoteright}. Another cluster included moderate-integrated adolescents that reported gender egalitarian ideas and gender transgressive behaviour. Seven in 10 of them were {\textquoteright}girls{\textquoteright}. A last cluster embraced well-integrated adolescents who reported gender egalitarian ideas but gender typical behaviour. Six in 10 of them were {\textquoteright}girls{\textquoteright}.

Multilevel analyses indicated that both aspects of gender, {\textquoteright}presupposed sex{\textquoteright} and gender identity, equally contribute to differences in language achievement. Moreover, the traditional gender gap in education (i.e. gap between {\textquoteright}girls{\textquoteright} and {\textquoteright}boys{\textquoteright}), becomes a little less important when one accounts for gender identity. This result suggests we cannot understand the effect of {\textquoteright}sex{\textquoteright} on achievement without considering the effect of gender identity and vice versa. It argues the need to broaden the conventional gender-dichotomy in quantitative gender gap research.},
  author       = {Huyge, Ellen and Van Houtte, Mieke},
  booktitle    = {Conference of the Gender and Education Association, Abstracts},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Link{\"o}ping, Sweden},
  title        = {How adolescents' identities and achievements are gendered above and beyond their sex},
  year         = {2016},
}