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Fabrication and functionalization of PCB gold electrodes suitable for DNA-based electrochemical sensing

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Abstract
The request of high specificity and selectivity sensors suitable for mass production is a constant demand in medical research. For applications in point-of-care diagnostics and therapy, there is a high demand for low cost and rapid sensing platforms. This paper describes the fabrication and functionalization of gold electrodes arrays for the detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in printed circuit board (PCB) technology. The process can be implemented to produce efficiently a large number of biosensors. We report an electrolytic plating procedure to fabricate low-density gold microarrays on PCB suitable for electrochemical DNA detection in research fields such as cancer diagnostics or pharmacogenetics, where biosensors are usually targeted to detect a small number of genes. PCB technology allows producing high precision, fast and low cost microelectrodes. The surface of the microarray is functionalized with self-assembled monolayers of mercaptoundodecanoic acid or thiolated DNA. The PCB microarray is tested by cyclic voltammetry in presence of 5 mM of the redox probe K3Fe(CN6) in 0.1 M KCl. The voltammograms prove the correct immobilization of both the alkanethiol systems. The sensor is tested for detecting relevant markers for breast cancer. Results for 5 nM of the target TACSTD1 against the complementary TACSTD1 and non-complementary GRP, MYC, SCGB2A1, SCGB2A2, TOP2A probes show a remarkable detection limit of 0.05 nM and a high specificity.
Keywords
AMPLIFICATION, TECHNOLOGY, CLINICAL DIAGNOSTICS, ARRAY, Printed circuit board gold electrodes, electrolytic plating, surface functionalization, thiolated DNA probes, breast cancer markers detection

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Chicago
Salvo, Pietro, OYF Henry, Kristof Dhaenens, JLA Sanchez, An Gielen, BW Solnestam, J Lundeberg, CK O’Sullivan, and Jan Vanfleteren. 2014. “Fabrication and Functionalization of PCB Gold Electrodes Suitable for DNA-based Electrochemical Sensing.” Bio-medical Materials and Engineering 24 (4): 1705–1714.
APA
Salvo, P., Henry, O., Dhaenens, K., Sanchez, J., Gielen, A., Solnestam, B., Lundeberg, J., et al. (2014). Fabrication and functionalization of PCB gold electrodes suitable for DNA-based electrochemical sensing. BIO-MEDICAL MATERIALS AND ENGINEERING, 24(4), 1705–1714.
Vancouver
1.
Salvo P, Henry O, Dhaenens K, Sanchez J, Gielen A, Solnestam B, et al. Fabrication and functionalization of PCB gold electrodes suitable for DNA-based electrochemical sensing. BIO-MEDICAL MATERIALS AND ENGINEERING. AMSTERDAM: IOS PRESS; 2014;24(4):1705–14.
MLA
Salvo, Pietro, OYF Henry, Kristof Dhaenens, et al. “Fabrication and Functionalization of PCB Gold Electrodes Suitable for DNA-based Electrochemical Sensing.” BIO-MEDICAL MATERIALS AND ENGINEERING 24.4 (2014): 1705–1714. Print.
@article{7244818,
  abstract     = {The request of high specificity and selectivity sensors suitable for mass production is a constant demand in medical research. For applications in point-of-care diagnostics and therapy, there is a high demand for low cost and rapid sensing platforms. This paper describes the fabrication and functionalization of gold electrodes arrays for the detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in printed circuit board (PCB) technology. The process can be implemented to produce efficiently a large number of biosensors. We report an electrolytic plating procedure to fabricate low-density gold microarrays on PCB suitable for electrochemical DNA detection in research fields such as cancer diagnostics or pharmacogenetics, where biosensors are usually targeted to detect a small number of genes. PCB technology allows producing high precision, fast and low cost microelectrodes. The surface of the microarray is functionalized with self-assembled monolayers of mercaptoundodecanoic acid or thiolated DNA. The PCB microarray is tested by cyclic voltammetry in presence of 5 mM of the redox probe K3Fe(CN6) in 0.1 M KCl. The voltammograms prove the correct immobilization of both the alkanethiol systems. The sensor is tested for detecting relevant markers for breast cancer. Results for 5 nM of the target TACSTD1 against the complementary TACSTD1 and non-complementary GRP, MYC, SCGB2A1, SCGB2A2, TOP2A probes show a remarkable detection limit of 0.05 nM and a high specificity.},
  author       = {Salvo, Pietro and Henry, OYF and Dhaenens, Kristof and Sanchez, JLA and Gielen, An and Solnestam, BW and Lundeberg, J and O'Sullivan, CK and Vanfleteren, Jan},
  issn         = {0959-2989},
  journal      = {BIO-MEDICAL MATERIALS AND ENGINEERING},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1705--1714},
  publisher    = {IOS PRESS},
  title        = {Fabrication and functionalization of PCB gold electrodes suitable for DNA-based electrochemical sensing},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BME-140982},
  volume       = {24},
  year         = {2014},
}

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