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Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women

Steven Weyers (UGent) , Hans Verstraelen (UGent) , Jan Gerris (UGent) , Stan Monstrey (UGent) , Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago (UGent) , Bart Saerens (UGent) , Ellen De Backer (UGent) , Geert Claeys (UGent) , Mario Vaneechoutte (UGent) and Rita Verhelst
(2009) BMC MICROBIOLOGY. 9(102).
Author
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Abstract
Background: The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of this microflora can be considered as essential to the follow-up of transsexual women. The primary objective of this study was to map the neo-vaginal microflora in a group of 50 transsexual women for whom a neovagina was constructed by means of the inverted penile skin flap technique. Secondary objectives were to describe possible correlations of this microflora with multiple patients' characteristics, such as sexual orientation, the incidence of vaginal irritation and malodorous vaginal discharge. Results: Based on Gram stain the majority of smears revealed a mixed microflora that had some similarity with bacterial vaginosis (BV) microflora and that contained various amounts of cocci, polymorphous Gram-negative and Gram-positive rods, often with fusiform and comma-shaped rods, and sometimes even with spirochetes. Candida cells were not seen in any of the smears. On average 8.6 species were cultured per woman. The species most often found were: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus anginosus group spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium sp., Mobiluncus curtisii and Bacteroides ureolyticus. Lactobacilli were found in only one of 30 women There was no correlation between dilatation habits, having coitus, rinsing habits and malodorous vaginal discharge on the one hand and the presence of a particular species on the other. There was however a highly significant correlation between the presence of E. faecalis on the one hand and sexual orientation and coitus on the other (p = 0.003 and p = 0.027 respectively). Respectively 82%, 58% and 30% of the samples showed an amplicon after amplification with M. curtisii, Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis primer sets. Conclusion: Our study is the first to describe the microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women. It reveals a mixed microflora of aerobe and anaerobe species usually found either on the skin, in the intestinal microflora or in a BV microflora.

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MLA
Weyers, Steven, et al. “Microflora of the Penile Skin-Lined Neovagina of Transsexual Women.” BMC MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 9, no. 102, BIOMED CENTRAL, 2009, doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-102.
APA
Weyers, S., Verstraelen, H., Gerris, J., Monstrey, S., Lopes dos Santos Santiago, G., Saerens, B., … Verhelst, R. (2009). Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women. BMC MICROBIOLOGY, 9(102). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-9-102
Chicago author-date
Weyers, Steven, Hans Verstraelen, Jan Gerris, Stan Monstrey, Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago, Bart Saerens, Ellen De Backer, Geert Claeys, Mario Vaneechoutte, and Rita Verhelst. 2009. “Microflora of the Penile Skin-Lined Neovagina of Transsexual Women.” BMC MICROBIOLOGY 9 (102). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-9-102.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Weyers, Steven, Hans Verstraelen, Jan Gerris, Stan Monstrey, Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago, Bart Saerens, Ellen De Backer, Geert Claeys, Mario Vaneechoutte, and Rita Verhelst. 2009. “Microflora of the Penile Skin-Lined Neovagina of Transsexual Women.” BMC MICROBIOLOGY 9 (102). doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-102.
Vancouver
1.
Weyers S, Verstraelen H, Gerris J, Monstrey S, Lopes dos Santos Santiago G, Saerens B, et al. Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women. BMC MICROBIOLOGY. 2009;9(102).
IEEE
[1]
S. Weyers et al., “Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women,” BMC MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 9, no. 102, 2009.
@article{724153,
  abstract     = {{Background: The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of this microflora can be considered as essential to the follow-up of transsexual women. The primary objective of this study was to map the neo-vaginal microflora in a group of 50 transsexual women for whom a neovagina was constructed by means of the inverted penile skin flap technique. Secondary objectives were to describe possible correlations of this microflora with multiple patients' characteristics, such as sexual orientation, the incidence of vaginal irritation and malodorous vaginal discharge.
Results: Based on Gram stain the majority of smears revealed a mixed microflora that had some similarity with bacterial vaginosis (BV) microflora and that contained various amounts of cocci, polymorphous Gram-negative and Gram-positive rods, often with fusiform and comma-shaped rods, and sometimes even with spirochetes. Candida cells were not seen in any of the smears.

On average 8.6 species were cultured per woman. The species most often found were: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus anginosus group spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium sp., Mobiluncus curtisii and Bacteroides ureolyticus. Lactobacilli were found in only one of 30 women

There was no correlation between dilatation habits, having coitus, rinsing habits and malodorous vaginal discharge on the one hand and the presence of a particular species on the other. There was however a highly significant correlation between the presence of E. faecalis on the one hand and sexual orientation and coitus on the other (p = 0.003 and p = 0.027 respectively).

Respectively 82%, 58% and 30% of the samples showed an amplicon after amplification with M. curtisii, Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis primer sets.

Conclusion: Our study is the first to describe the microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women. It reveals a mixed microflora of aerobe and anaerobe species usually found either on the skin, in the intestinal microflora or in a BV microflora.}},
  author       = {{Weyers, Steven and Verstraelen, Hans and Gerris, Jan and Monstrey, Stan and Lopes dos Santos Santiago, Guido and Saerens, Bart and De Backer, Ellen and Claeys, Geert and Vaneechoutte, Mario and Verhelst, Rita}},
  issn         = {{1471-2180}},
  journal      = {{BMC MICROBIOLOGY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{102}},
  publisher    = {{BIOMED CENTRAL}},
  title        = {{Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-9-102}},
  volume       = {{9}},
  year         = {{2009}},
}

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